Distance driven and driving speed when forwarding during final felling in Central Sweden

https://doi.org/10.17221/23/2019-JFSCitation:Berg S., Ersson B.T., Manner J. (2019): Distance driven and driving speed when forwarding during final felling in Central Sweden. J. For. Sci., 65: 183-194.
download PDF

Factors affecting forwarding work are interesting because they can be used to better optimize forwarding routes and to predict costs. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between driving speed and driving distance when forwarding. Data was automatically collected during 2.5 years from two large forwarders operating during final felling in central Sweden. Driving speeds for the work tasks Driving unloaded, Loading drive and Driving loaded were analysed using correlation, least-squares regression, and quantile regression. The results showed that speed and distance were strongly correlated for the work element Driving unloaded, while the correlation was weaker for Loading drive and Driving loaded. Possible factors leading to these results are as follows: longer travelling distances stimulate better planning and the establishment of better extraction roads; operators may feel stressed and drive faster as travelling distance increases; and finally, the relative influence of accelerations and decelerations decreases with increasing driving distance. Also, the use of quantile regression was successful and provided information that normal least-squares regression does not provide.

References:
af Wåhlberg A.E. (1997): Time pressure, age and driving speed among bus drivers: A pilot study. Report to the National Board of Road Administration. Uppsala, Uppsala University, Department of Psychology: 11.
 
Akay A.E., Erdas O., Sessions J. (2004): Determining productivity of mechanized harvesting machines. Journal of Applied Sciences, 100: 100–105.
 
Belbo Helmer, Talbot Bruce (2014): Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips. Forests, 5, 2084-2105 https://doi.org/10.3390/f5092084
 
Berg S., Manner J. (2018): The influence of driving distance on the forwarders’ average speed in mid-Sweden. In: Proceedings of the NB-NORD workshop on Big data from forest machines: Ongoing and possible future R&D activities for forest operations. Ås, 19–20 June: 4–5.
 
Cade Brian S., Noon Barry R. (2003): A gentle introduction to quantile regression for ecologists. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 412-420 https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2003)001[0412:AGITQR]2.0.CO;2
 
Carlsson D., Rönnqvist M., Westerlund A. (1998): Extraction of logs in forestry using operations research techniques. Linköping, Linköping University, Division of Optimization: 21.
 
Core Team R. (2015): R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
 
Flisberg Patrik, Forsberg Mattias, Rönnqvist Mikael (2007): Optimization based planning tools for routing of forwarders at harvest areas. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 2153-2163 https://doi.org/10.1139/X07-065
 
Ghaffarian M.R., Stampfer K., Sessions J. (2007): Optimum road spacing of forwarding operations: a case study in Southern Austria. In: Proceedings of Austro2007/FORMEC´07: Meeting the Needs of Tomorrows´ Forests – New Developments in Forest Engineering, Vienna, Heiligenkreuz, Oct 7–11, 2007: 1–11. Available at: https://www.formec.org/images/proceedings/2007/session_8_pdf/8_1_paper_ghaffarian_stampfer_sessions_austro_formec_2007.pdf
 
Gullberg T. (1997): Tidsåtgångsmodell för skotning. [Time consumption model for off-road extraction of shortwood.] Uppsatser och Resultat nr 297. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Technology: 29. (in Swedish)
 
Klepac J., Rummer B. (2012): Off-road transport of pinyon/juniper. In: Proceedings of the 35th Council on Forest Engineering Annual Meeting, Engineering New Solutions for Energy Supply and Demand. New Bern, North Carolina, Sept 9–12, 2012: 1–11. Available at: https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/2012/ja_2012_klepac_001.pdf
 
Koenker Roger (2004): Quantile regression for longitudinal data. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 91, 74-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmva.2004.05.006
 
Koenker R.W., d’Orey V. (1987): Algorithm AS 229: Computing regression quantiles. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), 36: 383–393.
 
Koenker R.W., d’Orey V. (1994): Remark AS R92: A remark on Algorithm AS 229: Computing dual regression quantiles and regression rank scores. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), 43: 410–414.
 
Kuitto P.J., Keskinen S., Lindroos J., Oijala T., Rajamäki J., Räsänen T., Terävä, J. (1994): Puutavaran koneellinen hakkuu ja metsäkuljetus. [Mechanized cutting and forest haulage.] Tiedotus 410. Helsinki, Metsäteho: 64. (in Finnish)
 
Kumazawa Y., Fujita M., Yamasaki A., Koyama K., Ichihara K., Oka M. (2011): Consideration about safety and efficient log transportation by forwarders. Journal of the Japan Forest Engineering Society, 26: 181–186.
 
Lindroos O., Wästerlund I. (2013): Utvärdering av skotning med påhängsvagn. [Evaluation of forwarding with a trailer.] Umeå, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: 48. (in Swedish)
 
Lu K., Bi H., Watt D., Strandgard M., Li W. (2017): Reconstructing the size of individual trees using log data from cut-to-length harvesters in Pinus radiata plantations: a case study in NSW, Australia. Journal of Forestry Research, 29: 13–33.
 
Manner Jussi, Nordfjell Tomas, Lindroos Ola (2013): Effects of the number of assortments and log concentration on time consumption for forwarding. Silva Fennica, 47, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1030
 
Manner Jussi, Palmroth Lauri, Nordfjell Tomas, Lindroos Ola (2016): Load level forwarding work element analysis based on automatic follow-up data. Silva Fennica, 50, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1546
 
Matthews Gerald, Dorn Lisa, Hoyes Thomas W., Davies D. Roy, Glendon A. Ian, Taylor Ray G. (2016): Driver Stress and Performance on a Driving Simulator. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 40, 136-149 https://doi.org/10.1518/001872098779480569
 
Nurminen Tuomo, Korpunen Heikki, Uusitalo Jori (2006): Time consumption analysis of the mechanized cut-to-length harvesting system. Silva Fennica, 40, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.346
 
Ranta T. (2002): Logging residues from regeneration fellings for biofuel production – a GIS-based availability and cost supply analysis. [Ph.D. Thesis] Lappeenranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology: 180. (in Finnish)
 
R Studio Team (2015): RStudio: Integrated Development for R. Boston, RStudio. Available at: http://www.rstudio.com/.
 
Snowdon P. (1991): A ratio estimator for bias correction in logarithmic regressions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21, 720-724 https://doi.org/10.1139/x91-101
 
Stradling S. G. (2007): Car driver speed choice in Scotland. Ergonomics, 50, 1196-1208 https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130701318681
 
Martin Strandgard, Rick Mitchell, Mauricio Acuna (2017): Time consumption and productivity of a forwarder operating on a slope in a cut-to-length harvest system in a Pinus radiata D. Don pine plantation. Journal of Forest Science, 63, 324-330 https://doi.org/10.17221/10/2017-JFS
 
Sundberg U., Silversides C.R. (1988): Operational Efficiency in Forestry. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers: 221
 
Tufts R.A. (1997): Productivity and cost of the Ponsse 15-series, cut-to-length harvesting system in southern pine plantations. Forest Products Journal, 47: 39–46.
 
Väkevä J., Kariniemi S., Lindroos J., Poikela A., Rajamäki J. Uusi-Pantti K. (2001): Puutavaran metsäkuljetuksen ajanmenekki. [Forwarding time consumption.] Metsätehon raportti 123. Helsinki, Metsäteho: 44. (in Finnish)
 
Väätäinen K., Ikonen T., Ala-Ilomäki J., Sirén M., Lamminen S. Asikainen A. (2012): Kuljettajaa opastavat älykkäät järjestelmät ja niiden käyttö koneellisessa puunkorjuussa. [Intelligent operator tutoring systems for wood harvesting.] Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Vantaa, Metla: 40. (in Finnish)
 
Ylimäki R., Väätäinen K., Lamminen S., Sirén M., Ala-Ilomäki J., Ovaskainen H., Asikainen A. (2012): Kuljettajaa opastavien järjestelmien tarve ja hyötypotentiaali koneellisessa puunkorjuussa. [Decision support systems in logging.] Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Vantaa, Metla: 70. (in Finnish)
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences