Creation of density distribution charts in the cross and axial section of a tree trunk– Short Communication
The purpose of this paper is to develop a method of constructing density distribution charts in roundwood log based on the density values obtained with a resistograph. The problem of improving the performance properties of structures made of wood and wood-based composite materials and laminated products is particularly relevant for construction in the northern regions. The experience of building in Yakutia shows sufficient reliability and durability of structures made of larch wood, despite the fact that their use is associated with technological challenges: larch planks warp and crack during the drying process; rigidity of wood increases. These disadvantages are caused by the structural features of the wood material; the degree of their intensity is proportional to the index of wood density. This paper presents the methods and results of qualitative research on wood indices obtained in laboratory and field conditions, as well as the authors’ methods of graphical representation of density distribution in the cross and axial sections of a tree trunk, which are based on measurements taken via the method of oriented drilling. In the experimental studies, we performed a comparative analysis of the two-dimensional charts of density distribution with the charts of velocity distribution of acoustic pulses produced by a sonic tomograph “Arbotom”. The elaborated method of evaluating the quality indicators of forest resources contributes to the expansion of the boundaries of wood-based material utilization, reduces their cost and improves the quality of construction of wooden structures and buildings.
Begunkova N.O., Isaev S.P., Begunkov O.I. (2012a): Predictive modeling of surfaces formed under round timber cut. Systems, Methods and Technologies, 4: 97–102.
Begunkova N.O., Isaev S.P., Begunkov O.I. (2012b): Records of morphometric characteristics of Larix gmelinii bole in sliced veneer production technology. The Bulletin of KrasGAU, 7: 165–171.
Calkins M. (2009): Materials for Sustainable Sites: A Complete Guide to the Evaluation, Selection, and Use of Sustainable Construction Materials. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons: 457.
Chubinskii A.N., Tambi A.A. (2013): Sorting of timber: It is time to change the principles of sorting. LesPromInform, 6: 18–20.
Chubinskii A.N., Tambi A.A., Fedyaev A.A., Fedyaeva N.Y., Kulkov A.M. (2015): Using of physical methods to control wood structure and properties. Systems, Methods and Technologies, 2: 152–158.
Chubinskii A. N., Tambi A. A., Teppoev A. V., Anan’eva N. I., Semishkur S. O., Bakhshieva M. A. (2014): Physical nondestructive methods for the testing and evaluation of the structure of wood-based materials. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 50, 693-700 https://doi.org/10.1134/S1061830914110023
Fujii Y., Fujiwara Y., Harada M., Kigawa R., Komine Y., Kawanobe W. (2009): Evaluation of insect attack in wooden historic buildings using drill resistance method. A case study on Sanbutsu-do of Rinnohji temple. Science for Conservation, 48: 215–222. (in Japanese)
Green D.W., Evans J.W., Craig B.A. (2003): Durability of structural lumber products at high temperatures. Wood and Fiber Science, 35: 499–523.
Howard J.L. (2007): U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Statistics, 1965–2005. Madison, USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory: 91.
Isaev S.P., Begunkova N.O. (2013): Modeling of annual rings in volume and at the cut of round woods. The Bulletin of Pacific National University, 1: 159–168.
Isik Fikret, Li Bailian (2003): Rapid assessment of wood density of live trees using the Resistograph for selection in tree improvement programs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33, 2426-2435 https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-176
Lavrov M.F. (2015): Improving the method for assessing the quality of larch, growing in climatic conditions in Yakutia. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Ekaterinburg, USFEU: 201. (in Russian)
Pereira-Rollo L.C.P., Silva Filho D.F., Tomazello Filho M., Moraes S.O., Couto H.T.Z. (2014): Can the impulse propagation speed from cross-section tomography explain the 21 conditioned density of wood? Wood Science and Technology, 48: 713–725.
Poluboyarinov O.I. (1976): Wood Density. Moscow, Nauka: 160.
Rinn F. (2012): Basics of micro-resistance drilling for timber inspection. Holzforschung, 53: 24–29.
Rinn F. (2013): Practical application of micro-resistance drilling for timber inspection. Holztechnologie, 54: 32–38.
Rinn F., Schweingruber F.-H., Schär E. (1996): RESISTOGRAPH and X-Ray Density Charts of Wood. Comparative Evaluation of Drill Resistance Profiles and X-ray Density Charts of Different Wood Species. Holzforschung, 50, 303-311 https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.19184.108.40.2063
Rinntech (2005): User Manual – Arbotom 3-D Tree Impulse Tomograph, Version 1.59 for Microsoft Windows 98, 2000, XP. Heidelberg, Microsoft: 42.
Ross R.J., Pellerin R.F. (1994): Nondestructive Testing for Assessing Wood Members in Structures: A Review. General Technical Report FPL-GTR-70. Madison, USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory: 40.
Vihrov V.E., Lobasenok A.K. (1963): Technical Properties of Wood in Connection with Wood Types. Minsk, Ministry of Higher, Secondary-Specialized and Professional Education of the Belorussian SSR: 72.
Volynskiy V.N. (1983): Density and module of elasticity as criteria of durability of wood. Russian Journal of Forest, 4: 76–80.
Volynskiy V.N. (2006): Links and Changes of Physic and Mechanical Properties of Wood. Arkhangelsk, Arkhangelsk State Technical University: 196.
Wang S.-Y., Chiu C.-M., Lin C.-J. (2003): Application of the drilling resistance method for annual ring characteristics: evaluation of Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides) trees grown with different thinning and pruning treatments. Journal of Wood Science, 49, 116-124 https://doi.org/10.1007/s100860300018