Selection of a chipper technology for small-scale operations – a Finnish case

https://doi.org/10.17221/26/2019-JFSCitation:Laitila J., Prinz R., Sikanen L. (2019): Selection of a chipper technology for small-scale operations – a Finnish case. J. For. Sci., 65: 121-133.
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The objective of this study was to determine the economic performance of alternative chipper choices for small-scale chipping based on unit cost (€ per chip-m3) and net present value (NPV) calculations. For the chipping cost and investment profitability analyses four tractor-powered professional or semi-professional disc chippers and two professional drum chippers mounted on a truck or powered by tractor were selected. Initial investment, operating costs, and the cost of outsourced chipping were the key elements for comparing the profitability of investment alternatives. The average purchase prices, cost factors, and technical details of the chipper units were acquired from machine dealers, specification sheets, a literature review, and interviews with chipping entrepreneurs. The results of the three tractor-powered professional chippers involved in the comparison were very close to each other. The profitable running of a truck-mounted drum chipper calls for high annual chipping volumes: the chipper type is therefore a feasible choice for an entrepreneur in large-scale chipping. Semi-professional disc chippers offer lower investment costs, but their economic feasibility is relatively poor.

References:
Ackerman Pierre, Belbo Helmer, Eliasson Lars, de Jong Anjo, Lazdins Andis, Lyons John (2014): The COST model for calculation of forest operations costs. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 25, 75-81 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2014.903711
 
Akay A. (2005): Using farm tractors in small-scale forest harvesting operations. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 1: 196–199.
 
Arlinger J., Björheden R., Brunberg T., Lundström H., Möller J.J. (2014): Size matters. Improving operations by analyzing the effects of machine size. In: Björheden R. (ed.): Proceedings of the Nordic Baltic Conference OSCAR14. Solutions for Sustainable Forestry Operations, June 25–27, NOVA Park Conference, Knivsta, Sweden. Arbetsrapport Från Skogforsk, 830: 54–55.
 
Belbo Helmer, Vivestad Henriette (2018): Predicting delay factors when chipping wood at forest roadside landings. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 29, 128-137 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2018.1462594
 
Beranek William (1975): The Cost of Capital, Capital Budgeting, and the Maximization of Shareholder Wealth. The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 10, 1- https://doi.org/10.2307/2330314
 
Björheden R., Thompson M. (2000): An international nomenclature for forest work study. In: Field D.B. (ed.): Proceedingsof the 20th World Congress – Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World, Tampere, Aug 6–12, 1995: 190–215.
 
Bäfver L., Renström C. (2013): Fraktionsfördelning som kvalitetsparameter för skogsbränsle – kraftoch värmeverkens perspektiv. [Fraction distribution as a quality parameter of energy wood, from the perspective of combined heat and power plants and heating plants.] Uppsala, Skogforsk. Arbetsrapport Från Skogforsk nr. 805–2013: 43. (in Swedish with English abstract)
 
Di Fulvio F., Eriksson G., Bergström D. (2015): Effects of wood properties and chipping length on the operational efficiency of a 30 kW electric disc chipper. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 36: 85–100.
 
Di Fulvio Fulvio, Abbas Dalia, Spinelli Raffaele, Acuna Mauricio, Ackerman Pierre, Lindroos Ola (2017): Benchmarking technical and cost factors in forest felling and processing operations in different global regions during the period 2013–2014. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 28, 94-105 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2017.1311559
 
Dodson E., Hayes S., Meek J., Keyes C.R. (2015): Montana logging machine rates. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 26: 85–95.
 
Eliasson Lars, Fridh Lars, Spinelli Raffaele (2018): The effect of output unit choice on detection of feedstock effects on chipper productivity and fuel consumption. Biomass and Bioenergy, 119, 37-42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.09.006
 
Eliasson Lars, Eriksson Anders, Mohtashami Sima (2017): Analysis of factors affecting productivity and costs for a high-performance chip supply system. Applied Energy, 185, 497-505 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.10.136
 
Eliasson L., von Hofsten H., Johannesson T., Spinelli R., Thierfelder T. (2015): Effects of sieve size on chipper productivity, fuel consumption and chip size distribution for open drum chippers. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 36: 11–17.
 
Eriksson Gunnar, Bergström Dan, Nordfjell Tomas (2013): The state of the art in woody biomass comminution and sorting in Northern Europe. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 24, 194-215 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2013.852391
 
Eriksson Anders, Eliasson Lars, Jirjis Raida (2014): Simulation-based evaluation of supply chains for stump fuel. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 25, 23-36 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2014.892293
 
Ghaffariyan Mohammad Reza, Brown Mark, Acuna Mauricio, Sessions John, Gallagher Tom, Kühmaier Martin, Spinelli Raffaele, Visser Rien, Devlin Ger, Eliasson Lars, Laitila Juha, Laina Ruben, Wide Maria Iwarsson, Egnell Gustaf (2017): An international review of the most productive and cost effective forest biomass recovery technologies and supply chains. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74, 145-158 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.02.014
 
HARTMANN H, BOHM T, DAUGBJERGJENSEN P, TEMMERMAN M, RABIER F, GOLSER M (2006): Methods for size classification of wood chips. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30, 944-953 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.06.010
 
Harstela P. (1991): Work studies in forestry. Silva Carelica, 18: 41.
 
Jensen Peter Daugbjerg, Mattsson Jan Erik, Kofman Pieter D., Klausner Achim (2004): Tendency of wood fuels from whole trees, logging residues and roundwood to bridge over openings. Biomass and Bioenergy, 26, 107-113 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(03)00101-6
 
Kaleja S., Lazdins A., Zimelis A., Spalva G. (2018): Model for cost calculation and sensitivity analysis of forest operations. Agronomy Research, 16: 2068–2078.
 
Kärhä Kalle (2011): Industrial supply chains and production machinery of forest chips in Finland. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 3404-3413 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.11.016
 
Karttunen Kalle, Väätäinen Kari, Asikainen Antti, Ranta Tapio (2012): The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland’s Lake Saimaa. Silva Fennica, 46, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.49
 
Karttunen Kalle, Lättilä Lauri, Korpinen Olli-Jussi, Ranta Tapio (2013): Cost-efficiency of intermodal container supply chain for forest chips. Silva Fennica, 47, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1047
 
Kons Kalvis, Bergström Dan, Di Fulvio Fulvio (2015): Effects of sieve size and assortment on wood fuel quality during chipping operations. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 26, 114-123 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2015.1069173
 
Kristensen E (): Pressure resistance to air flow during ventilation of different types of wood fuel chip. Biomass and Bioenergy, 18, 175-180 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(99)00089-6
 
Kühmaier M., Erber G. (2018): Research trends in European forest fuel supply chains: A review of the last ten years (2007–2016) – Part two: Comminution, transport & logistics. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 39: 139–152.
 
Laitila Juha, Heikkilä Jani, Anttila Perttu (2010): Harvesting alternatives, accumulation and procurement cost of small-diameter thinning wood for fuel in Central Finland. Silva Fennica, 44, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.143
 
Laitila J., Väätäinen K. (2012): Truck transportation and chipping productivity of whole trees and delimbed energy wood in Finland. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 33: 199–210.
 
Laitila J., Väätäinen K. (2013): Hakkuutyön tuottavuus metsävarustellulla turvetuotantotraktorilla karsitun aines- ja energiapuun korjuussa. [The cutting productivity in integrated harvesting of pulpwood and delimbed energy wood with a forestry-equipped peat harvesting tractor]: Suo – Mires and Peat, 64: 97–112.
 
Laitila Juha, Routa Johanna (2015): Performance of a small and a medium sized professional chippers and the impact of storage time on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem wood chips characteristics. Silva Fennica, 49, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1382
 
Laitila Juha, Ahtikoski Anssi, Repola Jaakko, Routa Johanna (2017): Pre-feasibility study of supply systems based on artificial drying of delimbed stem forest chips. Silva Fennica, 51, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5659
 
Levy H., Sarnat M. (1994): Capital Investment and Financial Decisions. New York, Prentice Hall: 782 .
 
Lu Hong, Ip Elvin, Scott Justin, Foster Paul, Vickers Mark, Baxter Larry L. (2010): Effects of particle shape and size on devolatilization of biomass particle. Fuel, 89, 1156-1168 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2008.10.023
 
Maganotti N., Spinelli R. (eds) (2012): Good practice guidelines for biomass production studies. COST action FP-0902. Florence, CNR IVALSA: 52.
 
Mattsson Jan Erik (2008): Basic handling characteristics of wood fuels: Angle of repose, friction against surfaces and tendency to bridge for different assortments. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 5, 583-597 https://doi.org/10.1080/02827589009382641
 
McCallum B. (1997): Handbook for Small Scale Fuelwood Chipping Operations. Vantaa, IEA Bioenergy: 49.
 
Mobini Mahdi, Sowlati Taraneh, Sokhansanj Shahab (2011): Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach. Applied Energy, 88, 1241-1250 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.10.016
 
Mola-Yudego Blas, Picchi Gianni, Röser Dominik, Spinelli Raffaele (2015): Assessing chipper productivity and operator effects in forest biomass operations. Silva Fennica, 49, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1342
 
Nurminen T., Korpunen H., Uusitalo J. (2009): Applying the activity-based costing to cut-to-length timber harvesting and trucking. Silva Fennica, 43: 847–870.
 
Öhlmér * Bo, Lönnstedt Lars (2004): Design of economic information. A pilot study of accounting information in decision-making processes. Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C, 1, 222-231 https://doi.org/10.1080/16507540410019700
 
Okkonen Lasse (2008): From exogenous to endogenous development in Scottish forestry: the feasibility of small-scale wood energy enterprise. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 51, 221-232 https://doi.org/10.1080/09640560701864852
 
Okkonen Lasse, Suhonen Niko (2010): Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland. Energy Policy, 38, 3443-3452 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.02.018
 
Paulrud Susanne, Nilsson Calle (2004): The effects of particle characteristics on emissions from burning wood fuel powder. Fuel, 83, 813-821 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2003.10.010
 
Prinz Robert, Laitila Juha, Eliasson Lars, Routa Johanna, Järviö Natasha, Asikainen Antti (2018): Hybrid solutions as a measure to increase energy efficiency – study of a prototype of a hybrid technology chipper. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 29, 151-161 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2018.1505350
 
Prinz Robert, Väätäinen Kari, Laitila Juha, Sikanen Lauri, Asikainen Antti (2019): Analysis of energy efficiency of forest chip supply systems using discrete-event simulation. Applied Energy, 235, 1369-1380 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.053
 
Röser Dominik, Mola-Yudego Blas, Prinz Robert, Emer Beatrice, Sikanen Lauri (2012): Chipping operations and efficiency in different operational environments. Silva Fennica, 46, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.60
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia (2010): A tool for productivity and cost forecasting of decentralised wood chipping. Forest Policy and Economics, 12, 194-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2009.10.002
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Nati Carla, Sozzi Lorena, Magagnotti Natascia, Picchi Gianni (2011): Physical characterization of commercial woodchips on the Italian energy market. Fuel, 90, 2198-2202 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.02.011
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia, Paletto Giuseppe, Preti Christian (2011): Determining the impact of some wood characteristics on the performance of a mobile chipper. Silva Fennica, 45, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.33
 
Spinelli R., Magagnotti N. (2013): Performance of a small-scale chipper for professional rural contractors. Forest Science and Practice, 15: 206–213.
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Cavallo Eugenio, Eliasson Lars, Facello Alessio (2013): Comparing the efficiency of drum and disc chippers. Silva Fennica, 47, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.930
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia (2014): Determining long-term chipper usage, productivity and fuel consumption. Biomass and Bioenergy, 66, 442-449 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.04.016
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Eliasson Lars, Magagnotti Natascia (2017): Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records. Forests, 8, 503- https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120503
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Eliasson Lars, Magagnotti Natascia (2019): Determining the repair and maintenance cost of wood chippers. Biomass and Bioenergy, 122, 202-210 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2019.01.024
 
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Ackerman Pierre, Belbo Helmer, Eliasson Lars, de Jong Anjo, Lazdins Andis, Lyons John (2014): The COST model for calculation of forest operations costs. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 25, 75-81 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2014.903711
 
Akay A. (2005): Using farm tractors in small-scale forest harvesting operations. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 1: 196–199.
 
Arlinger J., Björheden R., Brunberg T., Lundström H., Möller J.J. (2014): Size matters. Improving operations by analyzing the effects of machine size. In: Björheden R. (ed.): Proceedings of the Nordic Baltic Conference OSCAR14. Solutions for Sustainable Forestry Operations, June 25–27, NOVA Park Conference, Knivsta, Sweden. Arbetsrapport Från Skogforsk, 830: 54–55.
 
Belbo Helmer, Vivestad Henriette (2018): Predicting delay factors when chipping wood at forest roadside landings. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 29, 128-137 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2018.1462594
 
Beranek William (1975): The Cost of Capital, Capital Budgeting, and the Maximization of Shareholder Wealth. The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 10, 1- https://doi.org/10.2307/2330314
 
Björheden R., Thompson M. (2000): An international nomenclature for forest work study. In: Field D.B. (ed.): Proceedingsof the 20th World Congress – Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World, Tampere, Aug 6–12, 1995: 190–215.
 
Bäfver L., Renström C. (2013): Fraktionsfördelning som kvalitetsparameter för skogsbränsle – kraftoch värmeverkens perspektiv. [Fraction distribution as a quality parameter of energy wood, from the perspective of combined heat and power plants and heating plants.] Uppsala, Skogforsk. Arbetsrapport Från Skogforsk nr. 805–2013: 43. (in Swedish with English abstract)
 
Di Fulvio F., Eriksson G., Bergström D. (2015): Effects of wood properties and chipping length on the operational efficiency of a 30 kW electric disc chipper. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 36: 85–100.
 
Di Fulvio Fulvio, Abbas Dalia, Spinelli Raffaele, Acuna Mauricio, Ackerman Pierre, Lindroos Ola (2017): Benchmarking technical and cost factors in forest felling and processing operations in different global regions during the period 2013–2014. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 28, 94-105 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2017.1311559
 
Dodson Elizabeth, Hayes Steve, Meek Joshua, Keyes Christopher R. (2015): Montana logging machine rates. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 26, 85-95 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2015.1069497
 
Eliasson Lars, Fridh Lars, Spinelli Raffaele (2018): The effect of output unit choice on detection of feedstock effects on chipper productivity and fuel consumption. Biomass and Bioenergy, 119, 37-42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.09.006
 
Eliasson Lars, Eriksson Anders, Mohtashami Sima (2017): Analysis of factors affecting productivity and costs for a high-performance chip supply system. Applied Energy, 185, 497-505 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.10.136
 
Eliasson L., von Hofsten H., Johannesson T., Spinelli R., Thierfelder T. (2015): Effects of sieve size on chipper productivity, fuel consumption and chip size distribution for open drum chippers. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 36: 11–17.
 
Eriksson G., Bergström D., Nordfjell T. (2013): The state of the art in woody biomass comminution and sorting in Northern Europe. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 24: 194–215.
 
Eriksson Anders, Eliasson Lars, Jirjis Raida (2014): Simulation-based evaluation of supply chains for stump fuel. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 25, 23-36 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2014.892293
 
Ghaffariyan Mohammad Reza, Brown Mark, Acuna Mauricio, Sessions John, Gallagher Tom, Kühmaier Martin, Spinelli Raffaele, Visser Rien, Devlin Ger, Eliasson Lars, Laitila Juha, Laina Ruben, Wide Maria Iwarsson, Egnell Gustaf (2017): An international review of the most productive and cost effective forest biomass recovery technologies and supply chains. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74, 145-158 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.02.014
 
HARTMANN H, BOHM T, DAUGBJERGJENSEN P, TEMMERMAN M, RABIER F, GOLSER M (2006): Methods for size classification of wood chips. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30, 944-953 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.06.010
 
Harstela P. (1991): Work studies in forestry. Silva Carelica, 18: 41.
 
Jensen Peter Daugbjerg, Mattsson Jan Erik, Kofman Pieter D., Klausner Achim (2004): Tendency of wood fuels from whole trees, logging residues and roundwood to bridge over openings. Biomass and Bioenergy, 26, 107-113 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(03)00101-6
 
Kaleja S., Lazdins A., Zimelis A., Spalva G. (2018): Model for cost calculation and sensitivity analysis of forest operations. Agronomy Research, 16: 2068–2078.
 
Kärhä K. (2011): Industrial supply chains and production machinery of forest chips in Finland. Biomass Bioenergy, 35: 3404–3413.
 
Karttunen Kalle, Väätäinen Kari, Asikainen Antti, Ranta Tapio (2012): The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland’s Lake Saimaa. Silva Fennica, 46, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.49
 
Karttunen Kalle, Lättilä Lauri, Korpinen Olli-Jussi, Ranta Tapio (2013): Cost-efficiency of intermodal container supply chain for forest chips. Silva Fennica, 47, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1047
 
Kons Kalvis, Bergström Dan, Di Fulvio Fulvio (2015): Effects of sieve size and assortment on wood fuel quality during chipping operations. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 26, 114-123 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2015.1069173
 
Kristensen E (): Pressure resistance to air flow during ventilation of different types of wood fuel chip. Biomass and Bioenergy, 18, 175-180 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(99)00089-6
 
Kühmaier M., Erber G. (2018): Research trends in European forest fuel supply chains: A review of the last ten years (2007–2016) – Part two: Comminution, transport & logistics. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 39: 139–152.
 
Laitila Juha, Heikkilä Jani, Anttila Perttu (2010): Harvesting alternatives, accumulation and procurement cost of small-diameter thinning wood for fuel in Central Finland. Silva Fennica, 44, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.143
 
Laitila J., Väätäinen K. (2012): Truck transportation and chipping productivity of whole trees and delimbed energy wood in Finland. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 33: 199–210.
 
Laitila J., Väätäinen K. (2013): Hakkuutyön tuottavuus metsävarustellulla turvetuotantotraktorilla karsitun aines- ja energiapuun korjuussa. [The cutting productivity in integrated harvesting of pulpwood and delimbed energy wood with a forestry-equipped peat harvesting tractor]: Suo – Mires and Peat, 64: 97–112.
 
Laitila Juha, Routa Johanna (2015): Performance of a small and a medium sized professional chippers and the impact of storage time on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem wood chips characteristics. Silva Fennica, 49, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1382
 
Laitila Juha, Ahtikoski Anssi, Repola Jaakko, Routa Johanna (2017): Pre-feasibility study of supply systems based on artificial drying of delimbed stem forest chips. Silva Fennica, 51, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5659
 
Levy H., Sarnat M. (1994): Capital Investment and Financial Decisions. New York, Prentice Hall: 782 .
 
Lu Hong, Ip Elvin, Scott Justin, Foster Paul, Vickers Mark, Baxter Larry L. (2010): Effects of particle shape and size on devolatilization of biomass particle. Fuel, 89, 1156-1168 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2008.10.023
 
Maganotti N., Spinelli R. (eds) (2012): Good practice guidelines for biomass production studies. COST action FP-0902. Florence, CNR IVALSA: 52.
 
Mattsson Jan Erik (2008): Basic handling characteristics of wood fuels: Angle of repose, friction against surfaces and tendency to bridge for different assortments. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 5, 583-597 https://doi.org/10.1080/02827589009382641
 
McCallum B. (1997): Handbook for Small Scale Fuelwood Chipping Operations. Vantaa, IEA Bioenergy: 49.
 
Mobini Mahdi, Sowlati Taraneh, Sokhansanj Shahab (2011): Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach. Applied Energy, 88, 1241-1250 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.10.016
 
Mola-Yudego Blas, Picchi Gianni, Röser Dominik, Spinelli Raffaele (2015): Assessing chipper productivity and operator effects in forest biomass operations. Silva Fennica, 49, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1342
 
Nurminen Tuomo, Korpunen Heikki, Uusitalo Jori (2009): Applying the activity-based costing to cut-to-length timber harvesting and trucking. Silva Fennica, 43, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.177
 
Öhlmér * Bo, Lönnstedt Lars (2004): Design of economic information. A pilot study of accounting information in decision-making processes. Food Economics - Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C, 1, 222-231 https://doi.org/10.1080/16507540410019700
 
Okkonen Lasse (2008): From exogenous to endogenous development in Scottish forestry: the feasibility of small-scale wood energy enterprise. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 51, 221-232 https://doi.org/10.1080/09640560701864852
 
Okkonen Lasse, Suhonen Niko (2010): Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland. Energy Policy, 38, 3443-3452 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.02.018
 
Paulrud Susanne, Nilsson Calle (2004): The effects of particle characteristics on emissions from burning wood fuel powder. Fuel, 83, 813-821 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2003.10.010
 
Prinz Robert, Laitila Juha, Eliasson Lars, Routa Johanna, Järviö Natasha, Asikainen Antti (2018): Hybrid solutions as a measure to increase energy efficiency – study of a prototype of a hybrid technology chipper. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 29, 151-161 https://doi.org/10.1080/14942119.2018.1505350
 
Prinz Robert, Väätäinen Kari, Laitila Juha, Sikanen Lauri, Asikainen Antti (2019): Analysis of energy efficiency of forest chip supply systems using discrete-event simulation. Applied Energy, 235, 1369-1380 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.053
 
Röser Dominik, Mola-Yudego Blas, Prinz Robert, Emer Beatrice, Sikanen Lauri (2012): Chipping operations and efficiency in different operational environments. Silva Fennica, 46, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.60
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia (2010): A tool for productivity and cost forecasting of decentralised wood chipping. Forest Policy and Economics, 12, 194-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2009.10.002
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Nati Carla, Sozzi Lorena, Magagnotti Natascia, Picchi Gianni (2011): Physical characterization of commercial woodchips on the Italian energy market. Fuel, 90, 2198-2202 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.02.011
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia, Paletto Giuseppe, Preti Christian (2011): Determining the impact of some wood characteristics on the performance of a mobile chipper. Silva Fennica, 45, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.33
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia (2013): Performance of a small-scale chipper for professional rural contractors. Forest Science and Practice, 15, 206-213 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11632-013-0308-5
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Cavallo Eugenio, Eliasson Lars, Facello Alessio (2013): Comparing the efficiency of drum and disc chippers. Silva Fennica, 47, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.930
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Magagnotti Natascia (2014): Determining long-term chipper usage, productivity and fuel consumption. Biomass and Bioenergy, 66, 442-449 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.04.016
 
Spinelli Raffaele, Eliasson Lars, Magagnotti Natascia (2017): Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records. Forests, 8, 503- https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120503
 
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