The influence of rural road development on forest extent changes over the three time periods: A case study of Chegeni region, Lorestan province
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the development of road quality (surfacing condition and road type) and road quantity (road density and distance to main road) on forest extent changes in a region in Zagros forests of Iran over the three time periods of 1960s, 2000s and 2010s. Ranks of 1 to 5 were assigned to road quality. Forest extent changes were analysed on digital aerial photo mosaic. The Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test the relationship between the road parameters and forest extent changes. Results showed that rural-forest road network has more influence on settlement development. Forest extent was correlated negatively with the road quality. Moreover, there were more disturbances to native forests closer to roads. It was concluded that forest cover decrease was associated with physical parameters including access to roads, cultivation practices, road quality and settlement development.
Adedeji O.A., Olafiaji E.M., Omole F.K., Olanibi J.A., Yusuff L. (2014): An assessment of the impact of road transport on rural development: A case study of Obokun local government area of Osun state, Nigeria. British Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2: 34–48.
Bahreini S., Maknoon R. (2001): Sustainable urban development from mind to action. Journal of Environmental Studies, 27: 41–60.
Buys P., Deichmann U., Wheeler D. (2010): Road Network Upgrading and Overland Trade Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Economies, 19, 399-432 https://doi.org/10.1093/jae/ejq006
DeLuca G.D. (2007): Roads, Development and Deforestation: A Review. Washington, D.C. World Bank, Development Research Group: 57.
Du S., Wang Q., Guo L. (2014): Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales. Journal of Environment Management, 137: 101–110.
Gao Jay, Liu Yansui (2012): Deforestation in Heilongjiang Province of China, 1896–2000: Severity, spatiotemporal patterns and causes. Applied Geography, 35, 345-352 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.08.001
Hawbaker Todd J., Radeloff Volker C., Hammer Roger B., Clayton Murray K. (2005): Road Density and Landscape Pattern in Relation to Housing Density, and Ownership, Land Cover, and Soils. Landscape Ecology, 20, 609-625 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-004-5647-0
Hosseini S., Hosseini S.A., Tahmoores S. (2012a): Status of quantitative distribution for forest roads based on village development of Tajan forestry project (Mazandaran paper and wood Company). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 3153–3157.
Hosseini S.A., Khalili M.E., Pourmajidian M., Fallah A., Parsakhoo A. (2012b): Relationship between forest road length and village development during three decades in Neka-Zalemrood forest. Journal of Forest Science, 58: 1–7.
Jacoby H. G. (2000): Access to Markets and the Benefits of Rural Roads. The Economic Journal, 110, 713-737 https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00562
Kašková M. (2012): Design of forest road network in relation to all-society functions of forests. Journal of Forest Science, 50, 243-247 https://doi.org/10.17221/4621-JFS
Khandker Shahidur R., Bakht Zaid, Koolwal Gayatri B. (2009): The Poverty Impact of Rural Roads: Evidence from Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 57, 685-722 https://doi.org/10.1086/598765
Laurance William F., Goosem Miriam, Laurance Susan G.W. (2009): Impacts of roads and linear clearings on tropical forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24, 659-669 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.06.009
Mahapa Sabina M, Mashiri Mac (2001): Social exclusion and rural transport: Gender aspects of a road improvement project in Tshitwe, Northern Province. Development Southern Africa, 18, 365-376 https://doi.org/10.1080/03768350120070026
Mohammadi J. (2006): Spatial analysis between accessing to road and rural development with emphasized to services accessing. Rural and Development Journal, 4: 117–144.
Olayiwola L.M., Adeleye O.A. (2017): Rural Infrastructural Development in Nigeria: Between 1960 and 1990 – Problems and Challenges. Journal of Social Sciences, 11, 91-96 https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2005.11892499
Phompila Chittana, Lewis Megan, Ostendorf Bertram, Clarke Kenneth (2017): Forest Cover Changes in Lao Tropical Forests: Physical and Socio-Economic Factors are the Most Important Drivers. Land, 6, 23- https://doi.org/10.3390/land6020023
Roberts P., Shyam K.C., Rastogi C. (2006): Rural Access Index: A Key Development Indicator. Washington, D.C., World Bank Group: 27.
Salami A., Kamara A.B., Brixiova Z. (2010): Smallholder Agriculture in East Africa: Trends, Constraints and Opportunities. AfDB Working Paper No. 105. Tunis, African Development Bank: 51.
Savill T., Stone J., Venter C., Maunder D. (2003): Improving access to transport in developing countries. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer, 156, 149-153 https://doi.org/10.1680/muen.2003.156.2.149
Tanser Frank, Gijsbertsen Brice, Herbst Kobus (2006): Modelling and understanding primary health care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: An exploration using a geographical information system. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 691-705 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.015
Wilkie David, Shaw Ellen, Rotberg Fiona, Morelli Gilda, Auzel Philippe (2000): Roads, Development, and Conservation in the Congo Basin. Conservation Biology, 14, 1614-1622 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99102.x