Changes of the mixed mountain virgin forest after 70 years on a permanent plot in the Ukrainian Carpathians 567

https://doi.org/10.17221/41/2009-JFSCitation:Veska J., Šebesta J., Kolář T. (2009): Changes of the mixed mountain virgin forest after 70 years on a permanent plot in the Ukrainian Carpathians 567. J. For. Sci., 55: 567-577.
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During 2004–2006, another permanent research plot (No. 12) on Pop Ivan Marmarosh Mt. in the Zakarpattya province of Ukraine was renewed, i.e. re-measured and re-analyzed. The plot was originally established in the 30’s of the 20th century. The tree layer is dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) as often associated species, and with sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) growing occasionally in small groups. After 70 years, the tree species composition partly changed. Total live timber volume increased from 529.6 to 636.3 m3/ha. Considerable growth was recorded in beech, while the live timber volume of fir, spruce and sycamore maple did not almost change. Total number of trees (> 3 cm in dbh) increased from 737 trees/ha to 760 trees/ha. Number of beech trees increased markedly. On the contrary, fir and spruce showed a significant decrease in tree number. Interesting results emerged from the renewal of the permanent square plot (20 × 20 m), proving that beech is able to persist in the shade for more than 70 years with only minimal increment of both height and diameter.
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