Influence of storage on properties of wood chip materialästerlund I., Nilsson P., Gref R. (2017): Influence of storage on properties of wood chip material. J. For. Sci., 63: 182-191.
download PDF
The use of bioenergy for district heating is usually seasonal with a high consumption during the cold periods. Therefore some type of the harvested material storage is necessary. Woody materials are usually reduced in size to chips and stored outdoors in piles or under cover. During storage the materials decompose as a result of chemical and biological processes resulting in dry matter loss. The degree and rate of decomposition primarily depend on material moisture content and temperature. In this study four piles of wood chips, each containing 240 t wet weight, were studied for moisture content and temperature development during 5.5 months of storage. Two piles were stacked normally and two compacted at 50 to 60 kPa pressures. Additionally, a ventilating tarp, TopTex, was used to test the effect of covering the material. Nylon net bags with the same chip material were placed at different positions in the piles for moisture content determination. The volume of three piles shrunk between 3 and 6% but the volume of the uncovered compacted pile shrunk almost 6%. The low shrinkage indicated that material losses in this study were small. The temperature development in all piles followed a similar pattern but with maximum temperatures at different positions, top for the uncompacted pile and innermost for the compacted one. The ventilation tarp on the piles had only a minor effect on the temperature development. Moisture content decreased but the results are uncertain due to problems with the scale precision. Net bag analyses showed that the lowest moisture loss occurred in the middle of the uncovered compacted pile but the values only refer to their specific position in the pile.
Afzal M.T., Bedane A.H., Sokhansanj S., Mahmood W. (2010): Storage of comminuted and uncomminuted forest biomass and its effect on fuel quality. BioResources, 5: 55–69.
Andersson E., Burvall J. (1986): Heat values and factors influencing the heat value. Bioenergi No. 4. (in Swedish)
Armstrong J. (1973): Spontaneus Combustion of Forest Fuels: A Review. Information Report FF-X-42. Ottawa, Forest Fire Research Institute: 14.
Back E.L., Allen L.H. (eds) (2000): Pitch Control, Wood Resin and Deresination. Atlanta, TAPPI Press: 340.
Barontini Maurizio, Scarfone Antonio, Spinelli Raffaele, Gallucci Francesco, Santangelo Enrico, Acampora Andrea, Jirjis Raida, Civitarese Vincenzo, Pari Luigi (2014): Storage dynamics and fuel quality of poplar chips. Biomass and Bioenergy, 62, 17-25
Bergman Ö., Nilsson T. (1967): On Outside Storage of Aspen Chips at Hörnefors’ Sulphite Mill. Research Notes No. 55. Stockholm, Royal College of Forestry: 60. (in Swedish with English summary)
Deepak Kumar S. (2011): Prevention and control module for spontaneous combustion of coal at coal yards. Available at
Dungan K.W. (1981): Fire Protection in Coal Handling Facilities: New and Retrofit. Technology Report 81-10. Oak Ridge, Society of Fire Protection Engineers: 8.
Fuller W.S. (1985): Chip pile storage – a review of practices to avoid deterioration and economic losses. TAPPI Journal, 88: 48–52.
Greaves H (1975): Microbiological Aspects of Wood Chip Storage in Tropical Environments. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 28, 315-
Hägg K. (2008): Measurement of Tree Parts and Forest Wood Chips at Dåvamyran, Umeå Energy. Report No. 223-2008. Umeå, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: 57. (in Swedish with English summary)
Jirjis R., Pari L., Sissot F. (2008): Storage of poplar wood chips in northern Italy. In: Proceedings of the World Bioenergy Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping, May 27–29, 2008: 107–111.
Kossuth Susan V., Roberts Donald R., Huffman Jacob B., Wang Shih-Chi (1982): Resin acid, turpentine, and caloric content of paraquat-treated slash pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 12, 489-492
Kossuth S.V., Roberts D.R., Huffman J.B., Wang S.C. (1984): Energy value of paraquat-treated and resin-soaked loblolly pine. Wood and Fibre Science, 16: 398–402.
Lehtikangas P. (1999): Handbook for Storage of Bio Fuels. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: 116. (in Swedish)
Mohan D., Pittman C.U., Steele P.H. (2006): Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: A critical review. Energy & Fuels, 20: 848–889.
Nurmi J. (1999): The storage of logging residue for fuel. Biomass & Bioenergy, 17: 41–47.
Nylinder M., Thörnqvist T. (1980): Storage of Stump Wood in a Simulated Environment. Report No 113. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: 45. (in Swedish with English summary)
Richardson J., Björheden R., Hakkila P., Lowe A.T., Smith C.T. (eds) (2002): Bioenergy from Sustainable Forestry: Guiding Principles and Practise. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers: 344.
Swedish Wood Measuring Association (1998): Common and special directions for measurements of bio fuels. Available at (in Swedish)
Thörnqvist T. (1982): The Importance of Cover and Air Under-base with Storage of Fuel Chips. Report No. 127. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: 82. (in Swedish with English summary)
Thörnqvist T. (1985): Drying and storage of forest residues for energy production. Biomass & Bioenergy, 7: 125–134.
Zabel R.A., Morrell J.J. (eds) (1992): Wood Microbiology: Decay and its Preservation. San Diego, Academic Press, Inc.: 476.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti