Residual damage in different ground logging methods alongside skid trails and winching strips
Akay A.,Yilmaz M., Tongue F. (2006): Impact of mechanized harvesting machines on forest ecosystem: Residual stand damage. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11: 2414–2419.
Barari K., Sotoudeh Foumani B., Nobakht A., Moafi M., Ashrafi S.B. (2011): Time study and efficiency (production and costs) of wheeled skidder HSM 904 in Caspian forests. Word Applied Sciences Journal, 14: 726–730.
Behjou F.K., Ghafarzade O. (2012): Selective logging and damage to unharvest trees in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Journal of BioResource, 7: 4867–4874.
Eroglu H., Oztürk U.O., Sonmez T., Tilki T., Akkuzu E. (2009): The impacts of timber harvesting techniques on residual trees, seedlings, and timber products in natural oriental spruce forests. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4: 220–224.
Ezzati Sattar, Najafi Akbar (2010): Long-Term Impact Evaluation of Ground-Base Skidding on Residual Damaged Trees in the Hyrcanian Forest, Iran. International Journal of Forestry Research, 2010, 1-8 https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/183735
Ficklin R., Dwyer P.J., Cutter B.E., Drapper T. (1997): Residual tree damage during selection cuts using two skidding systems in the Missouri Ozarks. In: 11th Central Hardwood Conference, Columbia, March 23–26, 1997: 36–46.
Gillespie W.H. (2001): Residual stand damage can be a serious logging problem. Available at http://www.wvfa.org/pdf/factsheets/FACT%20SHEET%20No.%2031.pdf
Han H.S., Kellogg L.D. (2000a): Damage characteristics in young Douglas-Fir stands from commercial thinning with four timber harvesting systems. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 15: 27–33.
Han H.S., Kellogg L.D. (2000b): A comparison of sampling method and a proposed quick survey for measuring residual stand damage from commercial thinning. Journal of Forest Engineering, 11: 63–69.
Han H.S. (2006): Impacts on Soils from Cut-to-length and Whole Tree Harvesting. [Master Thesis.] Moscow, University of Idaho: 43.
Jackson Scott M, Fredericksen Todd S, Malcolm Jay R (2002): Area disturbed and residual stand damage following logging in a Bolivian tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 166, 271-283 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00681-8
Jourgholami M., Majnounian. B. (2013): Effects of rubber-tired cable skidder on soil compaction in Hyrcanian forest. Croatian Journal of Forrest Engineering, 34: 123–135.
Laukkanen Sanna, Palander Teijo, Kangas Jyrki (2004): Applying voting theory in participatory decision support for sustainable timber harvesting. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, 1511-1524 https://doi.org/10.1139/x04-044
Laukkanen Sanna, Palander Teijo, Kangas Jyrki, Kangas Annika (2005): Evaluation of the multicriteria approval method for timber-harvesting group decision support. Silva Fennica, 39, - https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.387
Lotfalian M. (2012): Logging. Tehran, Ieij: 467. (in Persian)
Marvie Mohadjer M.R. (2006): Silviculture. Tehran, University of Tehran: 387. (in Persian)
Mosavi R. (2008): Comparison of Productivity, Cost and Environmental Impact of Two Harvesting Methods in Northern Iran: Short-log and Long-log. [PhD Thesis.] Joensuu, University of Joensuu: 84.
Naghdi R., Bagheri I., Taheri K., Akef M. (2009): Residual stand damage during cut to length harvesting method in Shafaroud forest of Guilan province. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 60: 931–947.
Nikooy M., Rashidi R., Kocheki G. (2010): Residual trees injury after selective cutting in broadleaf forest in Shafaroud. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science, 8: 173–179.
Palander T., Laukkanen S. (2006): A vote-based computer system for stand management planning. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 17: 13–20.
Reisinger W.T., Pope P. E. (1991): Impact of timber harvesting on residual trees in a central hardwood forest in Indiana. In: 8th Central Hardwood Conference. University Park, March 4–6, 1991: 81–92.
. Ahmad Solgi, . Akbar Najafi (2007): Investigating of Residual Tree Damage During Ground-Based Skidding. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10, 1755-1758 https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.1755.1758
Sarikhani N.O. (2001): Forest Utilization. Tehran, University of Tehran Press: 700. (in Persian)
Stanczykiewicz A. (2010): Damage to trees and regeneration layer resulting from timber harvesting with the use of equipment aggregated with farm tractor in thinned mountain stands. In: FORMEC (Forest Engineering Meeting Conference), Padova, July 11–14, 2010: 1–9.
Tavankar F., Majnounian B., Bonyad A.E. (2013): Felling and skidding damage to residual trees following selection cutting in Caspian forests of Iran. Journal of Forest Science, 59: 196–203.
Tavankar F., Majnounian B., Bonyad A.E. (2012): Felling and winching damages to natural regeneration in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 3: 300–305.
Tavankar F., Bonyad A.E., Majnounian B. (2011): Investigation of damages to stand caused by selection cutting using skidding system in the Asalem-Nav forest, Iran. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 37: 89–98.
Tavankar F., Bonyad A.E., Majnounian B. (2010): Investigation of damages to stand caused by selection cutting using skidding system in the Asalem-Nav Forest, Iran. Journal of Environmental Studies, 37: 10.
Tavankar F. (2000): Logging Damages on Stand and Soil. [PhD Thesis.] Tehran, Islamic Azad University: 185. (in Persian)