The effect of forest management on the frequency of dangerous trees in the Northern forests of Iran
A study of work accidents in forests has shown that dangerous trees play an important role in forest accidents. Despite the importance of safe working environments for forestry operations, the definition of these areas in natural forests is still unclear. Dangerous trees are considered those snagged with broken branches and a canopy or ones with dead trunks and stumps that have a hazard potential to the forest workers. This study investigates the frequency of these trees in the managed and unmanaged forests in the Caspian forests of Iran. In order to do the study, 15 circular plots with a total area of 1,000 square metres in two studied parcels were selected and the trees, according to their dangerous characteristics, were evaluated. The final results indicated that 66 and 50 trees per hectare had signs of being dangerous trees in the managed and unmanaged stand, respectively. A comparison of the average number of dangerous trees in the two studied parcels using the Mann-Whitney test indicated a significant difference so that the average number of dangerous trees in the managed parcel was more than the ummanaged parcel. Trees with broken branches had the highest frequency in the managed stand, while trees with a dead trunk or stump, a broken branch and canopy in the unmanaged forest were more than the other classes. Considering the relative frequency of the dangerous trees in the two study areas, identifying them could be one of the main attempts in logging safety. The existence of hazardous trees with different risk classes in each of the forest stands requires the development of specific safety instructions to deal with the risks of each tree.
Argow K.A. (1995): 1995–96 NWOA position statements: Nonindustrial private forestry issues. Woodland Report, 12: 5.
Ashby E.J., Bentley T., Parker R.J. (2002): Felling injuries-an exploratory analysis of logging tasks and safety. COHFE Report (Centre for Human Factors and Ergonomics), Rotorua, New Zealand, 3: 1–22.
Bell Jennifer L., Helmkamp James C. (2003): Non-fatal injuries in the West Virginia logging industry: Using workers' compensation claims to assess risk from 1995 through 2001. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 44, 502-509 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.10307
Bentley Tim A., Parker Richard J., Ashby Liz (2005): Understanding felling safety in the New Zealand forest industry. Applied Ergonomics, 36, 165-175 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2004.10.009
Driscoll Timothy R., Ansari Guncha, Harrison James E., Frommer Michael S., Ruck Elizabeth A. (1995): Traumatic work-related fatalities in forestry and sawmill workers in Australia. Journal of Safety Research, 26, 221-233 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4375(95)00018-L
Egan A.F. (1995): OSHA’s danger trees – new regulation will have an impact on forest management and timber availability. Timber Harvesting, 43: 1–22.
Egan A.F. (1996). Hazards in the logging woods: Who’s responsible? Journal of Forestry, 94: 16–20.
Egan Andrew, Alerich Carol (1998): “Danger Trees” in Central Appalachian Forests of the United States. Journal of Safety Research, 29, 77-85 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4375(98)00004-8
Franklin J.F., Berg D., Thornburgh D., Tappeiner J.C. (1997): Alternative silvicutural approaches to timber harvesting: Variable retention harvest systems. In: Kohm K.A., Franklin J.F. (eds): Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: The Science of Ecosystem Management. Washington, D.C., Island Press 111–140.
Hunter M.L. (1990): Wildlife Forest and Forestry, Principles of Managing Forest for Biological Diversity. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs: 370.
ILO (1994): Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 29 CFR, Parts 1910 and 1928. Logging operations. Washington, D.C., Occupational Safety and Health Administration: 77.
Jinadu M.K. (1989): A case-study of accidents in a wood processing industry in Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine, 9: 63–68.
Kawachi I., Marshal S., Cryer P., Wright D., Laird I. (1994): Work-related injury among forestry socio workers in New Zealand. Journal of Occupational Health Command Safety, Australia and New Zealand, 10: 213–223.
Lindroos O., Burström L. (2010): Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42: 1729–1735.
Milburn J.S. (1998): Injuries on Mechanized Logging Operations in the Southeastern United States. [Master Thesis.] Blacksburg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University: 65. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9b67/3e97a6d6ae1c139c2e3e6840a2ad64132cfe.pdf
Myers John R., Fosbroke David E. (1994): Logging fatalities in the united states by region, cause of death, and other factors — 1980 through 1988. Journal of Safety Research, 25, 97-105 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4375(94)90021-3
Nikooy M., Naghdi R., Nourozi Z. (2012): Analysis of forest logging work accident, Case study, West forest of Guilan province, Journal of Forest and Wood Products (JFWP).Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 64: 475–486.
OSHA (2000): A review of logging fatalities investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in FY 1996 and FY 1997. Washington, D.C., Occupational Safety and Health Administration: 342.
P. A. Peters (1991): CHAINSAW FELLING FATAL ACCIDENTS. Transactions of the ASAE, 34, 2600-2608 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.31912
Potocnik I., Pentek T., Poje A. (2009): Severity analysis of accidents in forest operations. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 30: 171–184.
Salisbury D.A., Brubaker R., Hertzman C., Loeb G.R. (1994): Fatalities among British Columbia fallers and buckers. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 82: 32–37.