Root system development in naturally regenerated Douglas-fir saplings as influenced by canopy closure and crowding C., Karrié C., Forrester D.I., Kohnle U., Bauhus J. (2015): Root system development in naturally regenerated Douglas-fir saplings as influenced by canopy closure and crowding. J. For. Sci., 61: 406-415.
download PDF

Documented information on the growth dynamics and related silvicultural manipulation of naturally regenerat­ed Douglas-fir beneath a canopy shelter is scarce. We hypothesized that long regeneration phases creating dense cohorts of Douglas-fir advanced regeneration beneath a closed canopy of mature trees have a negative impact on the formation of a stable root system. We therefore studied the influence of shading and competition on root system characteristics of 28 naturally regenerated, ca 3 m tall Douglas-fir saplings growing either without immediate competitors or in dense neighbourhoods, and these situations were located either beneath a closed canopy or in large canopy openings. Both canopy shelter and neighbourhood crowding limited sapling growth and root system development. Saplings from groups located beneath the canopy, although significantly older than the saplings growing in the open, exhibited lower root-to-shoot ratios. When growing in the open, maximum width, total length, and total biomass of root systems was much lower for saplings with than without competitors. In contrast, reductions in root development owing to competition within the sapling cohort were less pronounced under closed canopy conditions. Our results suggest that irrespective of the level of canopy closure, high sapling densities in naturally regenerated young Douglas-fir stands should be reduced early to improve root system development and hence physical stability.

Albrecht Axel, Kohnle Ulrich, Hanewinkel Marc, Bauhus Jürgen (2013): Storm damage of Douglas-fir unexpectedly high compared to Norway spruce. Annals of Forest Science, 70, 195-207
Bauhus J., Puettmann K.J., Kühne C. (2013): Is close-to-nature forest management in Europe compatible with managing forests as complex ecosystems? In: Messier C., Puettmann K., Coates K.D. (eds): Managing Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems. Building resilience to the challenge of global change. Oxon, Routledge: 187–213.
Beaudet Marilou, Messier Christian (1998): Growth and morphological responses of yellow birch, sugar maple, and beech seedlings growing under a natural light gradient. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 1007-1015
Briggs Nathan A., Kuehne Christian, Kohnle Ulrich, Bauhus Jürgen (2012): Root system response of naturally regenerated Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) after complete overstory removal. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42, 1858-1864
Buermeyer K.R., Harrington C.A. (2002): Fate of overstory trees and patterns of regeneration 12 years after clearcutting with reserve trees in southwest Washington. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 17: 78–85.
Carter R.E., Klinka K. (1992): Variation in shade tolerance of Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar in coastal British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 55, 87-105
Chan Samuel S, Radosevich Steven R, Grotta Amy T (2003): Effects of contrasting light and soil moisture availability on the growth and biomass allocation of Douglas-fir and red alder. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33, 106-117
Chen HYH (1997): Interspecific responses of planted seedlings to light availability in interior British Columbia: survival, growth, allometric patterns, and specific leaf area. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 1383-1393
Churchill D.J. (2005): Factors Influencing Understory Douglas-fir Vigor in Multi-cohort Prairie Colonization Stands at Fort Lewis, Washington. [MSc Thesis.] Washington, University of Washington: 70.
Cole Elizabeth C., Newton Michael (1987): Fifth-year responses of Douglas-fir to crowding and nonconiferous competition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17, 181-186
Curtis R.O. (1998): Selective cutting in Douglas-fir. Journal of Forestry, 96: 40–46.
Devine Warren D., Harrington Timothy B. (2008): Belowground competition influences growth of natural regeneration in thinned Douglas-fir stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 3085-3097
Diaci J. (ed.) (2006): Nature-based Forestry in Central Europe: Alternatives to Industrial Forestry and Strict Preservation. Studia Forestalia Slovenica 126. Ljubljana, University of Ljubljana: 178.
Drever C Ronnie, Lertzman Kenneth P (2003): Effects of a wide gradient of retained tree structure on understory light in coastal Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33, 137-146
Drew Allan P., Ferrell William K. (1977): Morphological acclimation to light intensity in Douglas-fir seedlings. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55, 2033-2042
Eisenhauer D.R., Sonnemann S. (2009): Waldbaustrategien unter sich ändernden Umweltbedingungen – Leitbilder, Zielsystem und Waldentwicklungstypen. Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz, 8: 71–88.
Emmingham W.H. (2002): Status of uneven-aged management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Forestry, 75, 433-436
Emmingham B., Chan S., Mikowski D., Owston P., Bishaw B. (2000): Silviculture practices for riparian forests in the Oregon coast range. Research Contribution 24. Corvallis, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University: 34.
FAIRBAIRN W. A., NEUSTEIN S. A. (1970): Study of Response of Certain Coniferous Species to Light Intensity. Forestry, 43, 57-71
Forrester David I., Vanclay Jerome K., Forrester Robert I. (2011): The balance between facilitation and competition in mixtures of Eucalyptus and Acacia changes as stands develop. Oecologia, 166, 265-272
GARDINER B. A., STACEY G. R., BELCHER R. E., WOOD C. J. (1997): Field and wind tunnel assessments of the implications of respacing and thinning for tree stability. Forestry, 70, 233-252
Gauer J., Aldinger E. (2005): Waldökologische Naturräume Deutschlands. Braunschweig, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ländliche Räume, Wald und Fischerei: 48.
Gower Stith T., Norman John M. (1991): Rapid Estimation of Leaf Area Index in Conifer and Broad-Leaf Plantations. Ecology, 72, 1896-
Groth O. (1927): Die Wurzelbildung der Douglasie und ihr Einfluss auf die Strum- und Schneefestigkeit dieser Holzart. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 103: 186–205, 268–285.
Gürth P. (1987): Zur Naturverjüngung der Douglasie im Südwest-Schwarzwald. Der Forst- und Holzwirt, 42: 59–63.
Harrington Timothy B (2006): Five-year growth responses of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar seedlings to manipulated levels of overstory and understory competition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36, 2439-2453
Harrington Timothy B., Harrington Constance A., DeBell Dean S. (2009): Effects of planting spacing and site quality on 25-year growth and mortality relationships of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii). Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 18-25
Hegyi F. (1974): A simulation model for managing jack pine stands. In: Fries J. (ed.): Growth models for tree and stand simulation. Royal College of Forestry, Research Note 30: 74–90.
Herman R., Lavender D. (1990): Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Douglas-fir. In: Burns R., Honkala B. (eds): Silvics of North America. Vol. 1. Conifers. USDA Agricultural Handbook 654. Washington, DC, United States Department of Agriculture: 527–540.
Kramer H., Smith J.H.G. (1985): Bestandesbegründung der Douglas-fir in Britisch-Kolumbien, Kanada. Forstarchiv, 56: 9–13.
Kuehne Christian, Puettmann Klaus J. (2008): Natural Regeneration in Thinned Douglas-fir Stands in Western Oregon. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 27, 246-274
Kühne C., Bauhus J., Hörnig T., Oh S. (2011): Einfluss von Überschirmung, Dichtstand und Pflanzengröße auf die Wurzelentwicklung natürlich verjüngter Douglasien. Forstarchiv, 82: 184–194.
Landesbetrieb Forst Baden-Württemberg (2014): Richtlinie landesweiter Waldentwicklungstypen. Stuttgart, Landesbetrieb Forst Baden-Württemberg: 118. Available at
Mailly D., Kimmins J. P. (1997): Growth of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla seedlings along a light gradient: resource allocation and morphological acclimation. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75, 1424-1435
Maranto J.C., Ferguson D.E., Adams D.L. (2008): Response of Douglas-fir advance regeneration to overstory removal. Research Paper RMRS-RP-73. Fort Collins, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 17.
Mason William, Edwards Colin, Hale Sophie (2004): Survival and early seedling growth of conifers with different shade tolerance in a Sitka spruce spacing trial and relationship to understorey light climate. Silva Fennica, 38, -
Merkel E. (2009): Zur Ästigkeit von Douglasien unter Schirm. [Diploma Thesis.] Rottenburg University of Applied Forest Sciences: 55.
Otto H.J. (1987): Skizze eines optimalen Douglasienanbaues in Nordwestdeutschland. Der Forst- und Holzwirt, 42: 515–522
Petritan I.C., Lüpke v.B., Petritan A.M. (2010): Einfluss unterschiedlicher Hiebsformen auf das Wachstum junger Buchen und Douglasien aus Pflanzung. Forstarchiv, 81: 40–52.
Petriţan Ion Catalin, von Lüpke Burghard, Petriţan Any Mary (2011): Effects of root trenching of overstorey Norway spruce (Picea abies) on growth and biomass of underplanted beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) saplings. European Journal of Forest Research, 130, 813-828
Poorter Hendrik, Niklas Karl J., Reich Peter B., Oleksyn Jacek, Poot Pieter, Mommer Liesje (2012): Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytologist, 193, 30-50
R Development Core Team (2014): An introduction to R. Available at
Reif A., Brucker U., Kratzer R., Schmiedinger A., Bauhus J. (2010): Waldbau und Baumartenwahl in Zeiten des Klimawandels aus Sicht des Naturschutzes. Bonn, Bundesamt für Naturschutz: 272
Schülli L. (1984): Erfahrungen mit der Douglasie zwischen Oberrhein und Bodensee. Allgemeine Forstzeitung, 39: 436–437.
Spellmann H., Caspari C.O., Michalewski R. (1984): Analyse von Schneeschäden in Kiefernbeständen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bestandesstruktur. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 155: 146–164.
Talbert C., Marshall D. (2005): Plantation productivity in the Douglas-fir region under intensive silvicultural practices: Results from research and operations. Journal of Forestry, 103: 65–70.
Tesch S.D., Mann J.W. (1991): Clearcut and Shelterwood Reproduction Methods for Regenerating Southwest Oregon Forests. Forest Research Lab Research Bulletin 72. Corvallis, Oregon State University: 45.
Teuffel K.Frhr.v., Kastrup M. (1998): Die Douglasie in Baden-Württemberg. AFZ/Der Wald, 53: 283–287.
Thünen-Institute (2014): Third National Forest Inventory – Results database. Available at:
Williams Harry, Messier Christian, Kneeshaw Daniel D (1999): Effects of light availability and sapling size on the growth and crown morphology of understory Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29, 222-231
Wobst J., Becker G. (1997): Möglichkeiten zur Erweiterung des waldbaulichen Einflusses auf die Holzqualität der Douglasie. Forst und Holz, 52: 555–563.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti