Effect of the root biotechnical characteristics of Alnus subcordata, Paulownia fortunei and Populus deltoides on the soil mechanics

https://doi.org/10.17221/55/2019-JFSCitation:Mohammad Ali Pourmalekshah A.A., Moayeri M.H., Parsakhoo A. (2019): Effect of the root biotechnical characteristics of Alnus subcordata, Paulownia fortunei and Populus deltoides on the soil mechanics. J. For. Sci., 65: 283-290.
download PDF

The effect of root reinforcement depends on the biotechnical characteristics of the root system including the tensile strength of individual roots, the root density and the distribution of the root system in the soil. This research was conducted in the Hyrcanian forest in Iran, where shallow landslides are frequent due to road construction. The effect of the root biotechnical characteristics of Alnus subcordata, Paulownia fortunei and Populus deltoides each one in 2-, 10- and 15-year-old plantations was assessed. The profile trenching method was used in this study to obtain the root area ratio of individual species by counting the number of roots and measuring the root diameter. For each species, single root specimens were sampled and tested for tensile tests in the laboratory using the standard Instron apparatus. The natural moisture content (two weeks after rainfall), Atterberg limits, shear strength of the soil were determined for plantations, stable and unstable sites. Results of this study indicated that plastic index and internal friction angle decreased with increasing root diameter rate. Moreover, internal friction angle and cohesion increased with increasing root area ratio and root diameter and density index. Tensile strength of roots decreased with increasing stand age. The highest and the lowest tensile strengths among species were observed for Paulownia fortunei and Populus deltoides, respectively. The findings of this research contribute to expanding the knowledge of root biotechnical properties of some tree species and to the choice of the most appropriate species for improving plastic index and shear strength in landslide prone areas.

References:
Abdi E., Majnounian B., Rahimi H., Zobeiri M., Habibi Bibalani G.H. (2011): Intraspecies variations of tree root tensile strength as eco-engineering materials in local scale (Case study: Kheyrud Forest). Journal of Natural Environment, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 64: 134–144.
 
Abdi E. (2014): Effect of Oriental beech root reinforcement on slope stability (Hyrcanian Forest, Iran). Journal of Forest Science, 60, 166-173 https://doi.org/10.17221/93/2013-JFS
 
Avani Nazi, Lateh Habibah, Bibalani Ghassem Habibi (2015): Root distribution of Acacia mangium Willd. and Macaranga tanarius L. of rainforest. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 43, 141-145 https://doi.org/10.3329/bjb.v43i2.21665
 
Bischetti Gian Battista, Chiaradia Enrico A., Simonato Tommaso, Speziali Barbara, Vitali Barbara, Vullo Paolo, Zocco Antonio (2005): Root Strength and Root Area Ratio of Forest Species in Lombardy (Northern Italy). Plant and Soil, 278, 11-22 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-0605-4
 
Comino E., Marengo P. (2010): Root tensile strength of three shrub species: Rosa canina, Cotoneaster dammeri and Juniperus horizontalis. CATENA, 82, 227-235 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.06.010
 
Chok Y. H., Jaksa M. B., Kaggwa W. S., Griffiths D. V. (2015): Assessing the influence of root reinforcement on slope stability by finite elements. International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 6, - https://doi.org/10.1186/s40703-015-0012-5
 
Davoudi M.H., Fatemi M. (2016): Effect of willow root diameter and density on shear strength of soil. Earth Sciences, 18: 143–148. (in Persian)
 
Davoudi M.H. (2009): Variations of shear resistance parameters in file grain soil due to willow roots density. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 62: 213–246.
 
Genet M., Stokes A., Fourcaud T., Cai X., Lu Y. (2006): Soil fixation by tree roots: changes in root reinforcement parameters with age in Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don. plantations. In: Hideaki M. (ed.): Proceedings of the INTERPRAEVENT International Symposium Disaster Mitigation of Debris Flows, Slope Failures and Landslides, Niigata, Sept 25–27, 2006: 535–542.
 
Genet Marie, Kokutse Nomessi, Stokes Alexia, Fourcaud Thierry, Cai Xiaohu, Ji Jinnan, Mickovski Slobodan (2008): Root reinforcement in plantations of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don: effect of tree age and stand structure on slope stability. Forest Ecology and Management, 256, 1517-1526 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.05.050
 
Gobinath R., Ganapathy G.P., Akinwumi I.I. (2015): Evaluating the use of lemon grass roots for the reinforcement of a landslide affected soil from Nilgris district, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 6: 2681–2687.
 
Habibi Bibalani Gh., Sobhe Zahedi Sh., Bazhrang Z. (2009): The traction effect of lateral roots of Mamraz on soil reinforcement. Journal of Watershed Engineering and Management, 1: 160–167.
 
Hosseini A.R., Shafai M., Musavi S.H., Rahimi H. (2013): Investigation of root tensile strength of trees (Populous species) on the riverbanks. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 7: 432–440. (in Persian)
 
Kazemi M., Abdi E., Majnounian B., Yousef Zadeh H. (2014): The effect of season on resistance of Persian oak (Quercus persica) roots (Case study: Tabarok, Bazaft basin). Iranian Journal of Forest, 6: 435–444. (in Persian)
 
Lateh H., Avani N., Habibi Bibalani G. (2014a): Root tensile strength variations in inter and intra species in rainforest. In: International Conference on Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering (CCEE’2014), Singapore, Nov 18–19, 2014: 50–54.
 
Habibah Lateh, Nazi Avani, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani (2014): Investigation of Root Distribution and Tensile Strength of Acacia mangium Willd (Fabaceae) in the Rainforest. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 045-052 https://doi.org/10.15580/GJBS.2014.2.012314056
 
Maleki S., Naghdi R., Abdi E., Nikooy M. (2014): Investigating the amount of reinforcement of Alnus subcordata root in order to use in bioengineering. Iranian Journal of Forest, 6: 49–58. (in Persian)
 
Mickovski S. B., van Beek L. P. H. (2009): Root morphology and effects on soil reinforcement and slope stability of young vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) plants grown in semi-arid climate. Plant and Soil, 324, 43-56 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0130-y
 
Nyambane Osano Simpson, Mwea Sixtus Kinyua (2011): Root tensile strength of 3 typical plant species and their contribution to soil shear strength; a case study: Sasumua Backslope, Nyandarua District, Kenya. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, 8, - https://doi.org/10.4314/jcerp.v8i1.69525
 
Pollen-Bankhead Natasha, Simon Andrew (2009): Enhanced application of root-reinforcement algorithms for bank-stability modeling. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 471-480 https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1690
 
Schwarz M., Rist A., Cohen D., Giadrossich F., Egorov P., Büttner D., Stolz M., Thormann J.-J. (2015): Root reinforcement of soils under compression. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 120, 2103-2120 https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003632
 
Thorne CR. (1990): Effects of vegetation on riverbank erosion and stability. In: Thornes J.B. (ed.): Vegetation and Erosion. Chichester; Wiley: 125–143.
 
Voottipruex P. Bergado D.T. Mairaeng W. Chucheepsakul S., Modmoltin C. (2008): Soil reinforcement with combination roots system: A case study of vetiver grass and Acacia Mangium Willd. Lowland Technology International, 2: 56–67.
 
Wynn Theresa M., Mostaghimi Saied, Burger James A., Harpold Adrian A., Henderson Marc B., Henry Leigh-Anne (2004): Variation in Root Density along Stream Banks. Journal of Environment Quality, 33, 2030- https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2004.2030
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences