The importance of coarse woody debris in dynamic phases exposure in the beech (Fagus orientalis L.) stands of Hyrcanian forests V., Javanmiri pour M., Foladi Z. (2019): The importance of coarse woody debris in dynamic phases exposure in the beech (Fagus orientalis L.) stands of Hyrcanian forests. J. For. Sci., 65: 408-422.
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In a natural forest, phases of different dynamics are gradually replaced to create sustainability in the stands. Coarse woody debris is among the most significant structural elements of natural stands that perform an influential position in the identification of dynamic phases. Therefore, the focus of this study is on dead wood conditioning as one of the major structural components in determining the various dynamic phases in the northern forests of Iran as part of the temperate forests. For this study, compartment 326 of Gorazbon District was considered as one of the control parcels of Kheyroud Forest. In this parcel, 25 one-hectare sample plots were selected as permanent plots for a long-term forest structure and succession studies. The coarse woody debris by 100% sampling method was measured. The results showed that there are 8 main phases in this area (gap formation, understorey initiation, stem exclusion, volume accumulation, volume degradation, multiple, lighting, old-growth). The extensive forest area (52%) is located in the understorey initiation and stem exclusion phases. The results also showed that the total average volume of snags and logs was 41.5 m3·ha–1. Furthermore, the mean dead wood volume in decay classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 10.33, 12.22, 9.15 and 83.9 m3·ha–1, respectively. The average frequency of dead trees in the diameter classes smaller than 25 cm, 25–50 cm and in the diameter class more than 50 cm is 25.79, 6.93, and 4.88. The significance analysis results obtained by ANOVA test showed that there is a significant difference between volume, snag and log stock and the shape of dead wood in various dynamic phases. Therefore, in general, dead wood in the forest differs according to habitat, evolutionary stage (dynamic phases), standing volume and species diversity of the tree species.

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