Gap characteristics under oriental beech forest development stages in Kelardasht forests, northern Iran P., Hassani M., Sadeghzadeh Hallaj M.H. (2018): Gap characteristics under oriental beech forest development stages in Kelardasht forests, northern Iran. J. For. Sci., 64: 59-65.
download PDF
This study was carried out to evaluate gap characteristics and gapmakers for different development stages of an oriental beech forest in northern Iran. Development stages of 1 ha square-shaped mosaic patches were identified using 100 × 100 m sampling grid and all gaps within these mosaics were recorded. Gap areas were calculated and classified into four classes and gapmakers were counted and classified into 4 decay and 4 diameter classes as well. Results showed that gaps comprised 13.7, 9.1 and 17.6% of the study area in initial, optimal and decay stages, respectively. There was a significant difference between development stages with respect to gap size and the highest amount was observed in decay stage. Medium-sized gaps were the most frequent in all three stages. Frequency distribution of gapmakers varied among development stages. Our findings revealed that 200–500 m2 is the most preferable gap size for close-to-nature silvicultural approaches in Hyrcanian beech forests. To achieve this gap size 1–2 trees should be marked for harvesting operations.
Akhavan R., Sagheb-Talebi Kh., Zenner E. K., Safavimanesh F. (2012): Spatial patterns in different forest development stages of an intact old-growth Oriental beech forest in the Caspian region of Iran. European Journal of Forest Research, 131, 1355-1366
Anonymous (1998): Forestry Plan of District One in Langa Region, Watershed Number 36 (Kazemrood). Noshahr, Noshahr Natural Resources Office: 450. (in Persian)
Bauhus Jürgen, Puettmann Klaus, Messier Christian (2009): Silviculture for old-growth attributes. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 525-537
Bottero Alessandra, Garbarino Matteo, Dukic Vojislav, Govedar Zoran, Lingua Emanuele, Nagel Thomas, Motta Renzo (2011): Gap-phase dynamics in the old-growth forest of Lom, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Silva Fennica, 45, -
Christensen M., Emborg J., Nielsen A.B. (2007): The forest cycle of Suserup Skov – revisited and revised. In: Hahn K., Emborg J. (eds): Ecological Bulletins, Bulletin 52, Suserup Skov: Structures and Processes in a Temperate, Deciduous Forest Reserve. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell: 33–42.
Christensen Morten, Hahn Katrine, Mountford Edward P., Ódor Péter, Standovár Tibor, Rozenbergar Dusan, Diaci Jurij, Wijdeven Sander, Meyer Peter, Winter Susanne, Vrska Tomas (2005): Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves. Forest Ecology and Management, 210, 267-282
Clinton Barton D, Baker Corey R (2000): Catastrophic windthrow in the southern Appalachians: characteristics of pits and mounds and initial vegetation responses. Forest Ecology and Management, 126, 51-60
Commarmot B., Bachofen H., Bundziak Y., Bürgi A., Ramp B., Shparyk Y., Sukhariuk D., Viter R., Zingg A. (2005): Struc-tures of virgin and managed beech forests in Uholka (Ukraine) and Sihlwald (Switzerland): A comparative study. Forest Snow and Landscape Research, 79: 45–56.
Drößler L., Meyer P. (2006): Waldentwicklungsphasen in zwei Buchen-Urwaldreservaten in der Slowakei. Forstarchiv, 77: 155–161.
Emborg Jens, Christensen Morten, Heilmann-Clausen Jacob (2000): The structural dynamics of Suserup Skov, a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark. Forest Ecology and Management, 126, 173-189
Gálhidy László, Mihók Barbara, Hagyó Andrea, Rajkai Kálmán, Standovár Tibor (2006): Effects of gap size and associated changes in light and soil moisture on the understorey vegetation of a Hungarian beech forest. Plant Ecology, 183, 133-145
Habibi Kasseb H. (1992): Fundamentals of Forest Soil Science. Tehran, Tehran University: 428. (in Persian)
Hassani M., Amani M. (2009): Spatial structure of trees in old-growth oriental beech stands of Hyrcanian forests. In: Kharazipour A.R., Schöpper C., Müller C., Euring M. (eds): Review of Forests, Wood Products and Wood Biotechnology of Iran and Germany – Part III. Göttingen, Universitätsdrucke Göttingen: 185–194.
Hu Lile, Zhu Jiaojun (2009): Determination of the tridimensional shape of canopy gaps using two hemispherical photographs. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 862-872
Keeton W. S., Chernyavskyy M., Gratzer G., Main‐Knorn M., Shpylchak M., Bihun Y. (2010): Structural characteristics and aboveground biomass of old‐growth spruce–fir stands in the eastern Carpathian mountains, Ukraine. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 144, 148-159
Korpel S. (1995): Die Urwälder der Westkarpaten. Stuttgart, Gustav Fischer Verlag: 310.
Král Kamil, McMahon Sean M., Janík David, Adam Dušan, Vrška Tomáš (2014): Patch mosaic of developmental stages in central European natural forests along vegetation gradient. Forest Ecology and Management, 330, 17-28
Kucbel Stanislav, Jaloviar Peter, Saniga Milan, Vencurik Jaroslav, Klimaš Vladimír (2010): Canopy gaps in an old-growth fir-beech forest remnant of Western Carpathians. European Journal of Forest Research, 129, 249-259
Leibundgut H. (1993): Europäische Urwälder. Bern, Haupt Verlag: 260.
Lin Y., Hulting Melissa L., Augspurger Carol K. (2004): Causes of spatial patterns of dead trees in forest fragments in Illinois. Plant Ecology (formerly Vegetatio), 170, 15-27
Mountford E. P. (2006): Patterns of regeneration and ground vegetation associated with canopy gaps in a managed beechwood in southern England. Forestry, 79, 389-408
Müller-Using S., Bartsch N. (2003): Totholzdynamik eines Buchenbestandes (Fagus sylvatica L.) im Solling. Nachlieferung, Ursache und Zersetzung von Totholz. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitgung, 174: 122–130.
Müller-Using S., Bartsch N. (2004): Dynamics of woody debris in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest in central Germany. In: Sagheb-Talebi K., Madsen P., Terazawa K. (eds): Proceedings of the 7th International Beech Symposium. IUFRO Research Group 1.10.00, Tehran, May 10–20, 2004: 83–89.
Naaf Tobias, Wulf Monika (2007): Effects of gap size, light and herbivory on the herb layer vegetation in European beech forest gaps. Forest Ecology and Management, 244, 141-149
Nagel Thomas A., Svoboda Miroslav (2008): Gap disturbance regime in an old-growth FagusAbies forest in the Dinaric Mountains, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 2728-2737
Parhizkar P., Sagheb-Talebi K., Mataji A., Nyland R.D., Namiranian M. (2011b): Silvicultural characteristics of Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) regeneration under different RLI and positions within gaps. Forestry, 84: 177–185.
Parhizkar P., Sagheb-Talebi K., Mataji A., Namiranian M., Hassani M., Mortazavi M. (2011a): Tree and regeneration conditions within development stages in Kelardasht beech forest (case study: Reserve area-Langa). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19: 141–153. (in Persian)
Petritan Any Mary, Nuske Robert S., Petritan Ion Catalin, Tudose Nicu Constantin (2013): Gap disturbance patterns in an old-growth sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.)–European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest remnant in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania. Forest Ecology and Management, 308, 67-75
Ritter Eva, Dalsgaard Lise, Einhorn Katrina S. (2005): Light, temperature and soil moisture regimes following gap formation in a semi-natural beech-dominated forest in Denmark. Forest Ecology and Management, 206, 15-33
Rubin Benjamin D., Manion Paul D., Faber-Langendoen Don (2006): Diameter distributions and structural sustainability in forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 222, 427-438
Runkle James Reade (1981): Gap Regeneration in Some Old-growth Forests of the Eastern United States. Ecology, 62, 1041-1051
Sagheb-Talebi Khosro, Abazari Bahram Delfan, Namiranian Manuchehr (2005): Regeneration process in natural uneven-aged Caspian beech forests of Iran (reviewed paper). Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen, 156, 477-480
Scharenbroch B.C., Bockheim J.G. (2007): Pedodiversity in an old-growth northern hardwood forest in the Huron Mountains, Upper Peninsula, Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 1106-1117
Schütz J.P. (1990): Sylviculture 1. Principes d’éducation des forêts. Lausanne, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes: 243.
Sefidi K., Marvie Mohadjer M.R. (2016): The decay time and rate determination in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) dead trees in Asalem forests. Journal of Environmental Studies, 42: 552–563.
Sefidi Kiomars, Marvie Mohadjer Mohammad R., Mosandl Reinhard, Copenheaver Carolyn A. (2011): Canopy gaps and regeneration in old-growth Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands, northern Iran. Forest Ecology and Management, 262, 1094-1099
Weber Thomas A., Hart Justin L., Schweitzer Callie J., Dey Daniel C. (2014): Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 331, 60-70
WOODS KERRY D. (2004): Intermediate disturbance in a late-successional hemlock-northern hardwood forest. Journal of Ecology, 92, 464-476
Zarrinkafsh M.K. (2002): Forest Soils. Tehran, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands: 361. (in Persian)
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti