The main purpose of this study was evaluating indicators of forest road pavement degradation and their relation with different longitudinal slope classes after one year. Therefore, 30 plots of 100 m2 (10×10 m) area at a distance of 100 meters from each other were selected by a systematic method in the study forest road in the north of Iran. All effective factors on pavement degradation, like longitudinal and transverse slope, crown canopy on top of plots, azimuth and shape of road bed were measured. Additionally, to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of soil, 4 kg soil samples of pavement surface materials were taken from each mentioned plot. Regarding the results of average sifting through various sieves, we can state that in higher slope classes it is reduced by employing a bigger size of sieves. The percentage passing through sieve number 40 because of increasing slope in 4–7% slope classes was increased. There is a significant difference in the coefficient of uniformity between control treatment and classes 4–7% and above 7%. The treatments did not have an appropriate coefficient of curvature either. Totally, regarding negligible changes that were observed in class 4–7% in comparison with the other classes, we can figure out that this class is more suitable for the road construction.
Akay Abdullah E. (2006): Minimizing total costs of forest roads with computer-aided design model. Sadhana, 31, 621-633 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02715918
Bazyar M.H, Salehzadeh H. (2004): Soil Mechanics Laboratory. Tehran, University of Science and Technology: 150. (in Persian)
Ceratti J., Núñez W., Gehling W., de Oliveira J. (2000): Rutting of thin pavements: Full-scale study. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1716: 82–88.
Dawson A., Kolisoja P., Vuorimies N., Saarenketo T. (2007): Design of low-volume pavements against rutting: simplified approach. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1989: 165–172.
Demir Murat (2007): Impacts, management and functional planning criterion of forest road network system in Turkey. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41, 56-68 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2006.05.006
Eisbacher J. (1982): The practical application of soil testing method of forest road. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Paper, 33 (Logging of mountain forests): 71–80.
FAO (1998): A Manual for the planning, design and construction of forest roads in steep terrain. Place of publication, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 167.
Hosseini S.A., Khalilpour H., Mohammad Nejad A., Moafi M., Sotoudeh Foumani B. (2012). Comparing the expenses of forest road cut and fills operations with standard rules (Study Area: Northern Forests of Iran). European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2: 1023–1028.
Jamshidy Koohsari A., Majnounian B., Zahedi Amiri G., Hoseini S.A. (2009): Forest soil classification to reduce costs of mechanical capability study for roadway and transportation (Case study: Agh-Mashhad Forest). Journal of the Iranian Natural Resources, 61: 877–888. (in Persian)
Loeffler H. (1982): Terrain classification and its relation to operational methods. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 23.
Lugo Ariel E, Gucinski Hermann (2000): Function, effects, and management of forest roads. Forest Ecology and Management, 133, 249-262 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00237-6
Majnonian B., Sadeghi R. (2005): Determination of the optimal lime for soil stabilization and correction soil of forest roads. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, Tehran University, 4: 663–673. (in Persian)
Majnounian B., Jamshidy A., Zahedi Amiri Gh., Hosseini S.A. (2008): Forest soil classification to reduce costs of mechanical capability study for roadway and transportation (Case study: Agh-Mashhad Forest). Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 61: 877–888. (in Persian)
Najafi A., Torabi M., Nowbakht A.A., Moafi M., Eslami A., Sotoudeh Foumani B. (2012): Effect of forest roads on adjacent tree regeneration in a mountainous forest. Annals of Biological Research, 3: 1700–1703.
Najafi T. (2015): Soil Mechanics. Tehran, Mahyar publications: 138. (in Persian)
Queen L.A., Vlaming J.C., Arthaud G.J., Lime D.W. (1997): Modeling impact of forest roads on recreation opportunities. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 14: 194–201.
Smith D.M. (1986): The Practice of Silviculture. New York, John Wiley and Sons: 537.
Tabatabaie A M. (2006): Road and airport pavement. Tehran, Tehran University Press: 448. (in Persian)
Öztürk T., Senturk N. (2013): The Importance of Choosing the Pavement Materials on Forest Roads. In: International Caucasian Forestry Symposium, Artvin, Oct 24–26, 2013: 126.
Winkler N. (1998): Environmentally sound road construction in mountainous terrain. Forest Harvesting Case Study 10. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 64.