Below-canopy and topsoil temperatures in young Norway spruce and Carpathian birch stands compared to gaps in the mountains

https://doi.org/10.17221/77/2016-JFSCitation:Špulák O., Kacálek D. (2016): Below-canopy and topsoil temperatures in young Norway spruce and Carpathian birch stands compared to gaps in the mountains. J. For. Sci., 62: 441-451.
download PDF
Reduced air pollution load has allowed to use commercially oriented forestry in the Central European mountains since the 1990s. The goal is, however, to restore species- and age-diversified stable stands that are expected to cope with uncertain changes of the harsh mountain climate. The microclimate of current young forest stands can impact on growth and performance of underplanted seedlings. In the present study, aboveground (+10 cm), surface (0 cm) and belowground (–10 cm) temperatures were compared under Norway spruce and Carpathian birch canopies. Measurements were performed in 22-year-old Norway spruce and Carpathian birch stands and replicated three times. These measurements were compared with three adjacent gaps dominated by herbal vegetation. Temperatures were measured automatically during the growing periods 2011 and 2012. The research was conducted on Norway spruce on an acidic Spodosol forest site in the summit part of the Jizerské hory Mts., Czech Republic. Data were analysed using the Horn procedure of pivot measures. The highest variability of aboveground and soil surface temperatures was observed within the gaps during a spring time. The temperatures beneath the leafless birch were close to those within the gaps, whereas in the period of leaved trees the temperature extremes were reduced similarly like under the spruce stand canopy compared to the gaps. The differences between the plots were the smallest at the end of growing seasons.
References:
Augusto Laurent, De Schrijver An, Vesterdal Lars, Smolander Aino, Prescott Cindy, Ranger Jacques (2014): Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests. Biological Reviews, , n/a-n/a  https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12119
 
Balcar V., Podrázský V. (1994): Založení výsadbového pokusu v hřebenové partii Jizerských hor. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 39: 1–7.
 
Balcar V., Špulák O., Kacálek D. (2010): Tvorba druhové skladby horských lesů na lokalitách extrémně zatížených klimatickými stresy. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 55: 241–250.
 
Balcar V., Špulák O., Kacálek D., Kuneš I. (2012a): Klimatické podmínky na výzkumné ploše Jizerka – I. Srážky a půdní vlhkost. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 57: 74–81.
 
Balcar V., Špulák O., Kacálek D., Kuneš I. (2012b): Klimatické podmínky na výzkumné ploše Jizerka. II – teplota, vítr a sluneční svit. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 57: 160–172.
 
Bartoš J., Špulák O., Černohous L. (2009): Ukládání sněhu ve vztahu k dřevinám vysazeným na kalamitní holině v hřebenové partii horských poloh. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 54: 166–173.
 
Bäucker B., Eisenhauer D.R. (2001): Damage to common birch (Betula pendula Roth) in higher altitudes of the Ore Mts. (Erzgebirge). Journal of Forest Science, 47 (Special Issue): 156–163.
 
Box G.E.P., Cox D.R. (1964): An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Methodological), 26: 211–252.
 
CARLSON D (1997): Microclimate of clear-cut, forest interior, and small openings in trembling aspen forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 87, 313-329  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(95)02305-4
 
Chávez Virginia, Macdonald S.E. (2010): The influence of canopy patch mosaics on understory plant community composition in boreal mixedwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 1067-1075  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.12.013
 
Čihal A., Jurča J. (1961): Příspěvek k otázce využívání údajů o délkách stínu a podzáření při obnovách lesních porostů. Sborník Vysoké školy zemědělské v Brně, Řada C: Spisy fakulty lesnické: 21–32.
 
Crippa Monica, Janssens-Maenhout Greet, Dentener Frank, Guizzardi Diego, Sindelarova Katerina, Muntean Marilena, Van Dingenen Rita, Granier Claire (2016): Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 3825-3841  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3825-2016
 
Dickerson-Lange Susan E., Lutz James A., Martin Kael A., Raleigh Mark S., Gersonde Rolf, Lundquist Jessica D. (2015): Evaluating observational methods to quantify snow duration under diverse forest canopies. Water Resources Research, 51, 1203-1224  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015744
 
Drobyshev Igor, Nihlgård Bengt (2000): Growth response of spruce saplings in relation to climatic conditions along a gradient of gap size. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 930-938  https://doi.org/10.1139/x00-008
 
Dy Goulwen, Payette Serge (2007): Frost hollows of the boreal forest as extreme environments for black spruce tree growth. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 492-504  https://doi.org/10.1139/X06-235
 
El Kateb Hany, Benabdellah Benabdellah, Ammer Christian, Mosandl Reinhard (): Reforestation with native tree species using site preparation techniques for the restoration of woodlands degraded by air pollution in the Erzgebirge, Germany. European Journal of Forest Research, , -  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-004-0027-5
 
Ešnerová J., Karlík P., Zahradník D., Koňasová T., Stejskal J., Baláš M., Vítámvás J., Rašáková N., Stacho J., Kuthan J., Lukášová M., Kuneš I. (2012): Morfologická variabilita rodu bříza (Betula L.) v Krkonoších se zaměřením na tetraploidní zástupce. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 57: 112–125.
 
Ešnerová J., Vítámvás J., Koňasová T., Kolář F., Baláš M., Karlík P., Zahradník D., Křížová M., Stacho J., Rašáková N., Stejskal J., Kuneš I. (2013): Využití obrysové analýzy při sledování morfologické variability listů rodu bříza (Betula L.). Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 58: 107–114.
 
Fenger Jes (2009): Air pollution in the last 50 years – From local to global. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 13-22  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.061
 
Froelich N.J., Grimmond C.S.B., Schmid H.P. (2011): Nocturnal cooling below a forest canopy: Model and evaluation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151, 957-968  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.02.015
 
Games Paul A., Howell John F. (1976): Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures with Unequal N's and/or Variances: A Monte Carlo Study. Journal of Educational Statistics, 1, 113-  https://doi.org/10.2307/1164979
 
Geiger R. (1950): The Climate Near the Ground. Cambridge, Harvard University Press: 482.
 
Horn P.S., Pesce A.J., Copeland B.E. (1998): A robust approach to reference interval estimation and evaluation. Clinical Chemistry, 44: 622–631.
 
Hynynen J., Niemisto P., Vihera-Aarnio A., Brunner A., Hein S., Velling P. (): Silviculture of birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in northern Europe. Forestry, 83, 103-119  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpp035
 
Abd Latif Zulkiflee, Blackburn George Alan (2010): The effects of gap size on some microclimate variables during late summer and autumn in a temperate broadleaved deciduous forest. International Journal of Biometeorology, 54, 119-129  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-009-0260-1
 
Leikola Matti, Pylkkö Pentti (1969): Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica, 3, 20-32  https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
 
Leuzinger Sebastian, Körner Christian (2007): Tree species diversity affects canopy leaf temperatures in a mature temperate forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 146, 29-37  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.05.007
 
Lomský Bohumír, Šrámek Vít, Novotný Radek (2012): Changes in the air pollution load in the Jizera Mts.: effects on the health status and mineral nutrition of the young Norway spruce stands. European Journal of Forest Research, 131, 757-771  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-011-0549-6
 
Meloun Milan, Hill Martin, Militky Jiři, Kupka Karel (2001): Analysis of Large and Small Samples of Biochemical and Clinical Data.. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 39, -  https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2001.013
 
Natkhin Marco, Steidl Jörg, Dietrich Ottfried, Dannowski Ralf, Lischeid Gunnar (2012): Differentiating between climate effects and forest growth dynamics effects on decreasing groundwater recharge in a lowland region in Northeast Germany. Journal of Hydrology, 448-449, 245-254  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.05.005
 
Neuhäuslová Z., Moravec J., Chytrý M., Sádlo J., Rybníček K., Kolbek J., Jirásek J. (1997): Mapa potenciální přirozené vegetace České republiky. 1:500 000. Průhonice, Botanický ústav AV ČR.
 
Nihlgård B. (1969): Microclimate in a beech and a spruce forest – a comparative study from Kongalund, Scania, Sweden. Botaniska Notiser, 122: 333–352.
 
Parker G.G. (1995): Structure and microclimate in forest canopies. In: Lowman M.D., Nadkarni N.N. (eds): Forest Canopies. San Diego, Academic Press: 73–106.
 
Portsmuth Angelika, Niinemets Ülo (2006): Interacting controls by light availability and nutrient supply on biomass allocation and growth of Betula pendula and B. pubescens seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management, 227, 122-134  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.02.020
 
Prescott C. E. (2002): The influence of the forest canopy on nutrient cycling. Tree Physiology, 22, 1193-1200  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/22.15-16.1193
 
Prévost Marcel, Raymond Patricia (2012): Effect of gap size, aspect and slope on available light and soil temperature after patch-selection cutting in yellow birch–conifer stands, Quebec, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management, 274, 210-221  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.02.020
 
Ranger J., Marques R., Colin-Belgrand M. (1997): Nutrient dynamics during the development of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.) stand. Acta Oecologica, 18, 73-90  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1146-609X(97)80066-5
 
Reid T.D., Spencer M., Huntley B., Hancock S., Essery R.L.H., Carle J., Holden R., Baxter R., Rutter N. (2014): Spatial quantification of leafless canopy structure in a boreal birch forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 188, 1-12  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.12.005
 
Renaud Valentine, Rebetez Martine (2009): Comparison between open-site and below-canopy climatic conditions in Switzerland during the exceptionally hot summer of 2003. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 873-880  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.11.006
 
Repola Jaakko (2008): Biomass equations for birch in Finland. Silva Fennica, 42, -  https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.236
 
Rich Roy L., Stefanski Artur, Montgomery Rebecca A., Hobbie Sarah E., Kimball Bruce A., Reich Peter B. (2015): Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment. Global Change Biology, 21, 2334-2348  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12855
 
Rothe Andreas, Binkley Dan (2001): Nutritional interactions in mixed species forests: a synthesis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31, 1855-1870  https://doi.org/10.1139/x01-120
 
Savoy Philip, Mackay D. Scott (2015): Modeling the seasonal dynamics of leaf area index based on environmental constraints to canopy development. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 200, 46-56  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.09.019
 
Souček J. (2015): Stanovení délky a průběhu stínu v maloplošných obnovních prvcích. Certifikovaná metodika. Lesnický průvodce 2/2015. Strnady, Výzkumný ústav lesního hospodářství a myslivosti: 22.
 
Špulák O., Balcar V., Kacálek D. (2011): Vliv mletého vápence v jamce na prosperitu výsadeb, fluorescenci chlorofylu a obsah živin v listech břízy karpatské a buku lesního. Zprávy lesnického výzkumu, 56 (Special Issue): 57–64.
 
Šrámek V., Slodičák M., Lomský B., Balcar V., Kulhavý J., Hadaš P., Pulkráb K., Šišák L., Pěnička L., Sloup M. (2008): The Ore Mountains: Will successive recovery of forests from lethal disease be successful? Mountain Research and Development, 28: 216–221.
 
ÚHÚL (1999): OPRL – Oblastní plán rozvoje lesů. Přírodní lesní oblast č. 21 – Jizerské hory a Ještěd. Jablonec nad Nisou, Ústav pro hospodářskou úpravu lesů Brandýs nad Labem: 247.
 
Vašát Radim, Pavlů L., Borůvka L., Tejnecký V., Nikodem A. (): Modelling the impact of acid deposition on forest soils in North Bohemian Mountains with two dynamic models: the Very Simple Dynamic Model (VSD) and the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC). Soil and Water Research, 10, 10-18  https://doi.org/10.17221/76/2014-SWR
 
Viewegh J., Kusbach A., Mikeska M. (2003): Czech forest ecosystem classification. Journal of Forest Science, 49: 85–93.
 
von Arx Georg, Dobbertin Matthias, Rebetez Martine (2012): Spatio-temporal effects of forest canopy on understory microclimate in a long-term experiment in Switzerland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 166-167, 144-155  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.07.018
 
Webster Clare, Rutter Nick, Zahner Franziska, Jonas Tobias (2016): Measurement of Incoming Radiation below Forest Canopies: A Comparison of Different Radiometer Configurations. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 853-864  https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-15-0125.1
 
WELCH B. L. (1951): ON THE COMPARISON OF SEVERAL MEAN VALUES: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH. Biometrika, 38, 330-336  https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/38.3-4.330
 
Winkel T., Lhomme J.P., Laura J.P. Nina, Alcón C. Mamani, del Castillo C., Rocheteau A. (2009): Assessing the protective effect of vertically heterogeneous canopies against radiative frost: The case of quinoa on the Andean Altiplano. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 1759-1768  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.06.005
 
Yanai R. D., Siccama T. G., Arthur M. A., Federer C. A., Friedland A. J. (1999): ACCUMULATION AND DEPLETION OF BASE CATIONS IN FOREST FLOORS IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. Ecology, 80, 2774-2787  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[2774:AADOBC]2.0.CO;2
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences