Development of forest soils in the Krkonoše Mts. in the period 1980–2009
K. Matějka, S. Vacek, V. Podrázskýhttps://doi.org/10.17221/79/2010-JFSCitation:Matějka K., Vacek S., Podrázský V. (2010): Development of forest soils in the Krkonoše Mts. in the period 1980–2009. J. For. Sci., 56: 485-504.
This paper documents the development of soil conditions in the set of 32 permanent research plots in the Krkonoše (Giant) Mts. These plots represent an altitudinal gradient covering the ecosystems of beech, mixed beech-spruce and spruce stands. In all plots, representing the site conditions of the highest areas of the mountain range, standard soil pits were prepared and the soil sampling was performed in autumn of years 1980, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2009. The results reflect extreme site conditions, soil acidification, large scale surface liming and in minor extent also different tree species composition of the stands. The general type of the soil-genesis is represented by the podzolisation, overlapping the other soil-genetic factors, including the tree species composition. Nevertheless, this development is mostly expressed in the spruce stands. The beech dominance and/or co-dominance are reflected especially by more efficient N-cycling, higher pH, S and V values and fluctuation and lower extractable Al3+ content. More efficient cycling in beech ecosystems is insignificantly documented for plant available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents; on the contrary higher dynamics for iron ions was registered in the spruce stands. The long-term soil dynamics with a hysteresis (evident on the base of ordination analysis) can be divided into some periods – processes of acidification (typical in the 1980's samples), liming (main effect in 1993 and 1998) and regeneration (2003, 2009). Other features, important for the soil development, are probably related to the vegetation change, but this relation is not statistically significant.Keywords:
acidification; air pollution; Krkonoše Mts.; liming; multidimensional analysis; soil dynamics