Enhanced micropropagation protocol of ex vitro rooting of a commercially important crop plant Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider

https://doi.org/10.17221/80/2015-JFSCitation:Singh A., Agarwal P.K. (2016): Enhanced micropropagation protocol of ex vitro rooting of a commercially important crop plant Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider. J. For. Sci., 62: 107-115.
download PDF

A micropropagation protocol was developed by further improvement of prevailing methods using proven germplasm for ex vitro rooting and addressed the effect of the number of subcultures on the rooting ability of shoots. A comparative study was done between in vitro rooting method and ex vitro rooting method. Using the ex vitro rooting method a plantlet could be produced in 135 days, which was in a shorter time compared to the in vitro rooting method – 180 days. The best axillary shoot bud induction was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.6 μM thidiazuron (TDZ) with 5 shoot buds per explant. In the shoot cluster, which was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.3 μM TDZ, the rate of shoot multiplication increased in the 3rd subculture. The maximum mean number of shoots per explant (20) was obtained at the 3rd subculture on the same medium. Shoots were harvested at the 1st, 3rd and 5th subculture and pulse treated for root induction. The highest rooting (95%) was achieved from the 3rd subculture onwards with pulse treated shoots for fifteen days. The rooted plants could be established in a greenhouse with 99% survival. Ex vitro rooting is a promising method to reduce the time for plant generation. The resultant plantlets well established in pots and fruiting was observed within a year.

Agrawal V., Prakash S., Gupta S.C. (2002): Effective protocol for in vitro shoot production through nodal explants of Simmondsia chinensis. Biologia Plantarum, 45: 449–453. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016238205522
Andersen A.S. (1986): Environmental influences on adventitious rooting in cuttings of non-woody species. In: Jackson M.B. (ed.): New Root Formation in Plants and Cuttings. Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff: 223–253.
Apóstolo Nancy M., Llorente Berta E. (2000): Anatomy of normal and hyperhydric leaves and shoots of in vitro grown Simmondsia chinesis (link) schn. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 36, 243-249  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-000-0045-z
Badia N.K. (1982): Eucalyptus rudis Endl.: Techniques de micropropagation par la culture de noeuds in vitro. In: Colloque International sur la Culture in vitro des Essences Forestières, IUFRO, AFOCEL, Nangis, France: 135–142.
Bhagwat B., David Lane W. (2004): In vitro Shoot Regeneration from Leaves of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 78, 173-181  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:TICU.0000022552.12449.71
Bhardwaj Meenakshi, Uppal Sanjogta, Jain Sunita, Kharb Pushpa, Dhillon Ravinder, Jain Rajinder K. (2010): Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Marker Assays for Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider]. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 19, 255-258  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03263351
Bhatia N.P., Bhatia P., Ashwath N. (2002): Ex vitro rooting of micropropagated shoots of Stackhousia tryonii. Biologia Plantarum, 45: 441–444. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016234104613
Blakesley David (1991): Uptake and metabolism of 6-benzyladenine in shoot cultures of Musa and Rhododendron. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 25, 69-74  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00033915
Chang Y., Chen S., Ma B., Lu Z. (1991): Studies of the relationship between some hormones and adventitious root formation in shoot-tip culture of apple (Malus pumila mill cvs). Journal of Agricultural University of Hebei, 14: 1–5.
Chaturvedi H.C., Sharma Meena (1989): In vitro production of cloned plants of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (link) Schneider) through shoot proliferation in long-term culture. Plant Science, 63, 199-207  https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9452(89)90245-8
Coates Wayne, Ayerza Ricardo, Palzkill David (2006): Supplemental pollination of jojoba—A means to increase yields. Industrial Crops and Products, 24, 41-45  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2005.12.002
Debergh P.C., Maene L.J. (1981): A scheme for commercial propagation of ornamental plants by tissue culture. Scientia Horticulturae, 14, 335-345  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(81)90047-9
Driver J.A., Kuniyuki A.H. (1984): In vitro propagation of paradox walnut rootstock. Horticulture Science, 19: 507–509.
Farahani F., Aminpoor H., Sheidai M., Noormohammadi Z., Mazinani M.H. (2008): An Improved System for in vitro Propagation of Banana (Musa acuminate L.) Cultivars. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 116-118  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2008.116.118
Goncalves A.N. (1980): Reversion to juvenility and cloning of Eucalyptus urophyllu S.T. Blake in cell and tissue culture systems. In: IUFRO Symposium and Workshop on Genetic Improvement and Productivity of Fast Growing Tree Species, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Aug 25–30, 1980: 786–787.
Gupta P.K., Mascarenhas A.F., Jagannathan V. (1981): Tissue culture of forest trees—Clonal propagation of mature trees of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, by tissue culture. Plant Science Letters, 20, 195-201  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4211(81)90262-5
Hamama L., Baaziz M., Letouze R. (2001): Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf tissue of Jojoba. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 65: 109–113. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010642321556
Hofer M. (1995): In vitro androgenesis in apple. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 60: 12–15.
Huang Z., Li M., Tan S. (2002): Study on the relationship between the changes of activities and isoenzymes of polyphenol oxidase and the rooting of Eucalyptus cuttings after treatment with indolebutyric acid. Guihaia, 21: 77−82.
Huetteman Carl A., Preece John E. (1993): Thidiazuron: a potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 33, 105-119  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01983223
Hyde Camille L., Phillips Gregory C. (1996): Silver nitrate promotes shoot development and plant regeneration of chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) via organogenesis. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 32, 72-80  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02823134
Hou Jing-wei, Guo Su-juan, Wang Gui-yun (2010): Effects of in vitro subculture on the physiological characteristics of adventitious root formation in microshoots of Castanea mollissima cv. ‘yanshanhong’. Journal of Forestry Research, 21, 155-160  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-010-0025-z
Kochhar S., Kochhar V.K., Singh S.P., Katiyar R.S., Pushpangadan P. (2005): Differential rooting and sprouting behaviour of two Jatropha species and associated physiological and biochemical changes. Current Science, 89: 936–939.
Llorente B. E., Apóstolo N. M. (1998): Effect of different growth regulators and genotype on in vitro propagation of jojoba. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 26, 55-62  https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.1998.9514040
Llorente Berta E., Juarez Leonardo M., Apóstolo Nancy M. (2007): Exogenous trehalose affects morphogenesis in vitro of jojoba. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 89, 193-201  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-007-9237-0
Prat Loreto, Botti Claudia, Palzkill David (1998): Rooting of jojoba cuttings: the effect of clone, substrate composition and temperature. Industrial Crops and Products, 9, 47-52  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(98)00013-2
Low C.B., Hackett W.P. (1981): Vegetative propagation of Jojoba. California Agriculture, 35: 12–13.
Malik KamalA., Saxena PraveenK. (1992): Regeneration in Phaseolus vulgaris L.: High-frequency induction of direct shoot formation in intact seedlings by N6-benzylaminopurine and thidiazuron. Planta, 186, -  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00195319
Martin K. (2003): Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Rotula aquatica Lour., a rare rhoeophytic woody medicinal plant. Plant Cell Reports, 21, 415-420  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-002-0547-8
McComb J.A., Bennett I.J. (1982): Vegetative propagation of eucalypts: Using tissue culture and its application to forest improvement in Western Australia. In: Fujiwara A. (ed.): Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, Tokyo, Japan, July 11–16, 1982: 721–722.
Mills D., Wenkart S., Benzioni A. (1997): Micropropagation of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba). In: Bajaj Y.P.S. (ed.): Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag: 380–939.
Mills David, Yanqing Zhou, Benzioni Aliza (2004): Improvement of jojoba shoot multiplication in vitro by ventilation. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 40, 396-402  https://doi.org/10.1079/IVP2004537
Mondal T.K., Bhattacharya A., Sood A., Ahuja P.S. (1998): Micropropagation of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) using Thidiazuron. Plant Growth Regulation, 5: 57–61. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006019206264
Murashige Toshio, Skoog Folke (1962): A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bio Assays with Tobacco Tissue Cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473-497  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x
Murthy B. N. S., Murch Susan J., Saxena Praveen K. (1995): Thidiazuron-induced somatic embryogenesis in intact seedlings of peanut (Arachis hypogaea): Endogenous growth regulator levels and significance of cotyledons. Physiologia Plantarum, 94, 268-276  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb05311.x
Noiton D., Vine J. H., Mullins M. G. (1992): Effects of serial subculture in vitro on the endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid and rootability in microcuttings of ?Jonathan? apple. Plant Growth Regulation, 11, 377-383  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00130645
Pan R., Tian X. (1999): Comparative effect of IBA, BSAA and 5,6-Cl2-IAA-Me on the rooting of hypocotyl in mung bean. Plant Growth Regulation, 27: 91−98.
Pei D., Yuan L., Xi S., Gu R. (2002): Shoot rooting in vitro for walnut cultivars. Scientia Silvae Sincae, 38: 32–38.
Roussos P.A., Tolia-Marioli A., Pontikis C.A., Kotsias D. (1999): Rapid multiplication of Jojoba seedlings by in vitro culture. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 57: 133–137. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006316732621
Singh Aneesha, Reddy Muppla Parandhami, Chikara Jitendra, Singh Sweta (2010): A simple regeneration protocol from stem explants of Jatropha curcas—A biodiesel plant. Industrial Crops and Products, 31, 209-213  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.10.007
Singh A., Reddy M. P., Patolia J. S. (2008): An improved protocol for micropropagation of elite genotypes of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider. Biologia Plantarum, 52, 538-542  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-008-0105-5
Singh A., Reddy M. P., Chikara J. (2015): Shoot regeneration from petiole explants of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 86, 153-158  https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2011.11512741
Singh Aneesha, Jani Kruti, Sagervanshi Amit, Agrawal Pradeep Kumar (2014): High-Frequency Regeneration by Abscisic Acid (ABA) from Petiole Callus of Jatropha curcas. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 50, 638-645  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-014-9628-y
Tobares Lorena, Frati Mario, Guzmán Carlos, Maestri Damián (2004): Agronomical and chemical traits as descriptors for discrimination and selection of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) clones. Industrial Crops and Products, 19, 107-111  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2003.07.005
Tyagi R.K., Prakash S. (2004): Genotype- and Sex-Specific Protocols for in vitro Micropropagation and Medium-Term Conservation of Jojoba. Biologia Plantarum, 48, 19-23  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOP.0000024270.02186.1f
Wang G., Guo S. (2007): The key factor of tip culture of Castanea mollissima cv. ‘yanshanhong’. Journal of South China Agriculture University, 28: 144–147.
Wang J.X., Yan X.L., Pan R.C. (2005): Relationship between adventitious root formation and plant hormones. Plant Physiology Communications, 41: 133–142.
Wang Shiow Y., Steffens George L., Faust Miklos (1986): Breaking bud dormancy in apple with a plant bioregulator, thidiazuron. Phytochemistry, 25, 311-317  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85472-2
Xiao G., Yang Q. (2002): Advances in endogenous hormones of plant tissue culture. Journal of Yunnan Agriculture University, 62: 271–273.
Xu J., Wang Y., Zhang Y., Chai T. (2008): Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Malus zumi (Matsumura) Rehd. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30: 129–132.
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences