Life cycle and biology of Pityogenes scitus Blandford, 1893 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a pest of Pinus wallichiana in Kashmir, India

https://doi.org/10.17221/8/2020-JFSCitation:

Khanday A.L., Buhroo A.A. (2020): Life cycle and biology of Pityogenes scitus Blandford, 1893 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a pest of Pinus wallichiana in Kashmir, India. J. For. Sci., 66: 318–328.

download PDF

The bark beetle, Pityogenes scitus Blandford, 1893 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is one of the main pests in Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson, 1938 (Pinaceae)  stands, and it has also been found on other Oriental Pinaceae species. This pest is aggressive and has caused significant loss of host trees, but little is known of its biology and ecology. Based on the field and laboratory observations, this study describes the detailed bioecology of P. scitus.  This beetle pest overwinters in larval stage on blue pine (P. wallichiana) trees in Kashmir. After emergence, the adults fly to suitable trees and undergo maturation feeding for 4–6 days. Reproduction is polygamous type. After mating, each of the females makes one gallery with an average length 2.30 (± 0.41 SD) cm. The female lays 26.53 (± 6.32 SD) eggs on an average. The eggs hatch in 5 to 10 days. The larvae have 5 instars and complete their development in 18 to 28 days constructing larval galleries 1.76 (± 0.25 SD) cm in length. The larvae pupate for 13-22 days and finally the adults emerge to attack new suitable trees. The adults live for 28–40 days and the total life-span of this species ranges from 66 to 92 days. The seasonal distribution of various developmental stages and the number of generations were also recorded (5 generations (the last a partial one) per year in Kashmir). In general, the life cycle of P. scitus is similar to those described for other Pityogenes Bedel, 1 888 species. 

References:
Allen C.D., Macalady A.K., Chenchouni H., Bachelet D., McDowell N., Vennetier M. (2010): A global overview of drought and heat induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 660–684 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.001
 
Amman G.D., Cole W.E. (1983): Mountain pine beetle dynamics in lodgepole pine forests. Part 2. General Technical Report INT-GTR-145. Ogden, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 59.
 
Anderbrant O., Schlyter F., Birgersson G. (1985): Intraspecific competition affecting parents and offspring in the bark beetle. Ips typographus. Oikos, 45: 69–98.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3565226
 
Avtzis D.N., Bertheau C., Stauffer C. (2012): What is next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography? Insects, 3: 453–472.  https://doi.org/10.3390/insects3020453
 
Bargali S.S. (1989): Population structure of Central Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) forest. Environment & Ecology, 7: 431–436.
 
Biedermann P.H.W., Klepzig K.D., Taborsky M. (2011): Costs of delayed dispersal and alloparental care in the fungus-cultivating ambrosia beetle Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Scolytinae: Curculionidae). Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, 65: 1753–1761. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-011-1183-5
 
Buhroo A.A., Lakatos F. (2007): On the biology of the bark beetle, Scolytus nitidus Schedl (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attacking apple orchards. Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, 3: 65–75.
 
Byers J.A., Birgesson G., Löfqvist J., Appelgren M., Bergström G. (1990): Isolation of pheromone synergists of a bark beetle, Pityogenes chalcographus from complex insect-plant odours by fractionation and subtractive-combination bioassay. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16: 861–876. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01016496
 
Byers J.A., Birgesson G., Löfqvist J., Bergström G. (1988): Synergistic pheromones and monoterpenes enable aggregation and host recognition by a bark beetle. Naturwissenschaften, 75: 153–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00405312
 
Caltagirone L.E., Getz W., Meals D.W. (1983): Head capsule width as an index of age in larvae of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environmental Entomology, 12: 219–221. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/12.1.219
 
Chararas C. (1962): Encyclopêdie Entomologique A, Band 38. Paris, P. Lechevalier: 248.
 
Cibrian T.D., Mendez M.R.J.T., Campos B., Yates I.H.O., Flores, L.J.E. (1995): Insectos Forestales de Mexico. Publication No. 6. Universidad Autónoma Chapingo-Subsecretaría Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre/United Status Departament of Agricultura. Natural Resources Canada/Comisión Forestal de América del Norte. Chapingo, México: 453.
 
Dallara P.L., Flint M.L., Seybold S.J. (2012): An analysis of the larval instar of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Backman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in northern California black walnut, Juglans hindsii, and a new host record for Hylocurus hirtellus. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 88: 248–266. https://doi.org/10.3956/2012-16.1
 
Dogri S., Donaubauer E., Wingfield M.J., Kirisits T. (2012): Himalayan dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium minutissimum) and the leafy mistletoe Taxillus kaempferi on blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) in Bhutan. Journal of Agriculture and Rural development, 4: 217–220.
 
Dyar H.G. (1890): The number of molts of lepidopterous larvae. Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, 5: 420–422. https://doi.org/10.1155/1890/23871
 
Erbilgin N., Krokene P., Christiansen E., Zeneli G., Gershenzon J. (2006): Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate elicits defenses in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and reduces host colonization by the bark beetle Ips typographus. Oecologia, 148, 426–436. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-006-0394-3
 
Franceschi V.R., Krokene P., Christiansen E., Krekling T. (2005): Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests. New Phytology, 167: 353–375. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01436.x
 
Furniss M.L., Carolin V.M. (1992): Western forest insects. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication, No. 1339. Washington, DC: ? number of pages.
 
Gaire N.P., Dhakal Y.B., Shah S.K., Fan Z.X., Brauning A., Bhandari S., Aryal S., Bhuju D.R. (2018): Drought (scPDSI) reconstruction of trans-Himalayan region of central Himalaya using Pinus wallichiana tree-rings. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatoloy, Palaeoecology, 514: 251–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.10.026
 
Grégoire J.C., Raffa K.F., Lindgren B.S. (2015): Economics and politics of bark beetles. In: Vega F.E., Hofstetter R.W. (eds.): Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. New York, Academic Press: 585–613.
 
Jordal B.H. (2014): Scolytinae. In: Leschen R.A.B., Beutel R. (eds.): Handbook of zoology, Band IV Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 38: Coleoptera, Beetles, Vol. 3. Berlin, deGruyter Press: 349–358.
 
Kangas E. (1968): The orientation mechanisms of bark beetle in relation to their breeding material. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, 41: 177–180.
 
Khanday A.L., Buhroo A.A. (2015): Life history and biology of the elm bark beetle Scolytus kashmirensis Schedl (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) infesting Ulmus villosa in Kashmir. Open Journal of Forestry, 5:443–453. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2015.54038
 
Khanday A.L., Buhroo A.A. (2018): An assessment of biological control of Polygraphus major Stebbing, 1903 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by entomopathogenic fungi. Journal of Forest Science, 64: 178–186. https://doi.org/10.17221/140/2017-JFS
 
Knížek M. (2011): Platypodinae and Scolytinae. In: Löbl I., Smetana A. (eds.): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 7. Curculionoidea I. Stenstrup, Apollo Books: 201–251.
 
Maiti P.K., Saha N. (2009): The Fauna of India and the Adjacent Countries. Scolytidae: Coleoptera (Bark and Ambrosia Beetles). Volume: I (Part 2). Kolkata, Zoological Survey of India: 245.
 
McDowell N., Pockman W.T., Allen C.D., Breshears D.D., Cobb N., Kolb T. (2008): Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New phytologist, 178: 719–739. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02436.x
 
McNee W.R., Wood D.L., Storer A.J. (2000): Pre-emergence feeding in bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 29: 495–501. https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-29.3.495
 
Postner M. (1974): Scolytidae (= Ipidae), Borkenkäfer. In: Schwenke W. (ed.): Die Forstschädlinge Europas, 2. Band. Hamburg, Berlin, Verlag Paul Parey: 334–482.
 
Raffa K.F., Aukema B.H., Bentz B.J., Carroll A.L., Hicke J.A., Turner M.G., Romme W.H. (2008): Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: the dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. Bioscience, 58: 501–517. https://doi.org/10.1641/B580607
 
Raffa K.F., Gregoire J.C., Lindgren B.S. (2015): Natural history and ecology of bark beetles. In: Vega F.E., Hofstetter R.W. (eds.): Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. New York, Academic Press: 1–40.
 
Rai R.K., Bhatta L.D., Acharya U., Bhatta, A.P. (2018): Assessing climate-resilient agriculture for smallholders. Environmental Development, 27: 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2018.06.002
 
Robertson I.C. (1998): Paternal care enhances male reproductive success in pine engraver beetles. Animal Behavior, 56: 595–602. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1998.0816
 
Sala A., Piper F., Hoch G. (2010): Physiological mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality are far from being resolved. New Phytology, 186: 274 – 281. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03167.x
 
Schroeder L.M., Weslien J. (1994): Reduced offspring production in bark beetle Tomicus piniperda in pine bolts baited with ethanol and α-pinene, which attract antagonistic insects. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20: 1429–1444. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02059871
 
Schwerdtfeger F. (1929): Ein Beitrag zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Borkenkäfers Pityogenes chalcographus L. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie, 15: 335–427. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1929.tb00113.x
 
Shah S.K., Bhattacharyya A. (2012): Spatio-temporal growth variability in three Pinus species of Northeast Himalaya with relation to climate. Dendrochronologia, 30: 266–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2012.02.003
 
Stebbing E.P. (1914): Scotylidae. In: Indian Forest Insects of Economic Importance. Coleoptera. London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, Ltd.: 457– 610.
 
Stoszek K.J., Rudinsky J.A. (1967): Injury of Douglas-fir trees by maturation feeding of the Douglas-fir hylesinus, Pseudohylesinus nebulosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 99: 310–311. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent99310-3
 
Weber B.C., McPherson J.E. (1983): Life history of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76: 455–462. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/76.3.455
 
Wood S.L., Bright D.E. (1992): A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 1–1553.
 
Wood S.L. (2007): Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of South America (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Monte L. Bean Life Sci. Mus., Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
 
Yan Z.G., Sun J., Owen D., Zhang Z. (2005): The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Scolytidae): an exotic invasive pest of pine in China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14: 1735–1760. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-0697-9
 
Yu G., Wang H., Feng S., Lu X. (2015): A new pest of the lacebark pine (Pinus bungeana) in Beijing, the bark beetle Pityogenes scitus Blandford (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its control strategies. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 58: 99–102.
 
Zhang Q.H., Byers J.A., Schlyter F. (1992): Optimal attack density in the larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Applied Ecology, 29: 672–678. https://doi.org/10.2307/2404475
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences