Effect of fungal degradation on physicochemical properties of exploited stumps of oriental beech over a 25-year felling period and the obtained Kraft pulp properties

https://doi.org/10.17221/93/2018-JFSCitation:Rahmati Y., Nourmohammadi K., Naghdi R., Kartoolinejad D. (2019): Effect of fungal degradation on physicochemical properties of exploited stumps of oriental beech over a 25-year felling period and the obtained Kraft pulp properties. J. For. Sci., 65: 96-105.
download PDF

Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) is the most important and valuable industrial wood species in the Hyrcanian forests in the north of Iran mainly used for furniture, veneer, composite, and papermaking industries. The present research was conducted in 2014 aimed at investigating the physicochemical changes of the felled oriental beech stumps over a 225 year period, and likewise the feasibility of using the given stumps as an alternative resource for wood pulp production. To do so, the effects of in-situ decay of beech stumps on their physical (wet and dry weights of wood, wet apparent density, and dry apparent density) and chemical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives, and total mass of carbohydrates) properties over a 225 year felling period were studied. The effects of the given decay period were also studied on the obtained Kraft pulp yield and Kappa number. The results indicate that the wet and dry apparent densities as well as the wet and dry weights of the wood samples decreased over the study period. Also, the results show that approximately 30% of the total mass of carbohydrates was degraded by the ambient fungi over the initial two years of felling, whereas the same property was reduced by 60% after 25 years. The Kraft pulp yields obtained from 2- and 25-year decayed stumps were 22.5% and 8.4%, respectively. The fungal degradation of wood chemical compounds could considerably reduce pulp yield and Kappa number by 62.8% and 74.2%, respectively. The results of a stepwise  multivariate regression model evidence that cellulose not only affects the Kappa number but also owns a greater share (vs. lignin) in modelling the Kappa number. This reveals that the intensity of cellulose degradation, due to fungal exposure, is significantly higher than that of the other components of beech stumps in the studied forest area.

References:
Abdollahpoor A., Terazinia Sh. (2002): Chemical Analysis of Industrial Wood and Bark of Two Species of Beech and Spruce. [MSc Thesis.] Teheran, Tehran University: 148. (in Persian)
 
Akgul M., Tozluoglu A. (2009): Some Chemical and Morphological Properties of Juvenile Woods from Beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and Pine (Pinus nigra A.) Plantations. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 4, 116-125 https://doi.org/10.3923/tasr.2009.116.125
 
Bari Ehsan, Mohebby Behbood, Naji Hamid Reza, Oladi Reza, Yilgor Nural, Nazarnezhad Nouredin, Ohno Katie M., Nicholas Darrel D. (2018): Monitoring the cell wall characteristics of degraded beech wood by white-rot fungi: Anatomical, chemical, and photochemical study. Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, , 0-0 https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2018005001401
 
Bari E., Schmidt O., Oladi R., Woodward S. (2015): A histological investigation of Oriental beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor. Forest Pathology, 45, 349-357 https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12174
 
Bari Ehsan, Taghiyari Hamid Reza, Mohebby Behbood, Clausen Carol A., Schmidt Olaf, Tajick Ghanbary Mohammad Ali, Vaseghi Mohammad Javad (2015): Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi. Holzforschung, 69, - https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2014-0057
 
Bektaş İ., Güler C., Baştürk M.A. (2002): Principal mechanical properties of Eastern beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) naturally grown in Andırın Northeastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 26: 147–154.
 
Christensen Ole (1984): The States of Decay of Woody Litter Determined by Relative Density. Oikos, 42, 211- https://doi.org/10.2307/3544795
 
Colagar Abasalt Hosseinzadeh, Yousefzadeh Hamed, Shayanmehr Fatemeh, Jalali Seyed Gholamali, Zare Habib, Tippery Nicholas P. (2015): Molecular taxonomy of Hyrcanian Alnus using nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnH-psbA DNA barcode markers. Systematics and Biodiversity, 14, 88-101 https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2015.1102172
 
Fonseca M.I., Fariña J.I., Castrillo M.L., Rodríguez M.D., Nuñez C.E., Villalba L.L., Zapata P.D. (2014): Biopulping of wood chips with Phlebia brevispora BAFC 633 reduces lignin content and improves pulp quality. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 90: 29–35.
 
Harmon M.E. (2001): Moving towards a new paradigm for woody detritus management. Ecological Bulletins, 49: 269–278.
 
Kartoolinejad Davoud, Najafi Akbar, Kazemi-Najafi Saeed (2017): LONG-TERM IMPACTS OF GROUND SKIDDING ON STANDING TREES: ASSESSMENT OF DECAY USING STRESS WAVES. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16, 2283-2291 https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2017.236
 
Kubicek C.P. (2013): Fungi and Lignocellulosic Biomass. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons: 304.
 
Li Q., Wang X.X., Lin J.G., Liu J., Jiang M.S., Chu L.X. (2014): Chemical and antifungal activity of extracts from the xylem of Cinnamomum camphora. Biological Research, 9: 2560–2571.
 
Zhou Li, Dai Li-min, Gu Hui-yan, Zhong Lei (2007): Review on the decomposition and influence factors of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem. Journal of Forestry Research, 18, 48-54 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-007-0009-9
 
Liu Q.M., Luo Y.S., Wang H., Peng W.X., Wu Y.Q., Zhang D.Q., Ma Q.Z. (2008): Determination of chemical components of benzene/ethanol extractive of beech wood by GC/MS. Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering ICBBE. In: The 2nd International Conference, Shangha, date of conference, 2776–2779.
 
Nadali Elham, Karimi Alinaghi, Tajvidi Mehdi, Naghdi Reza (2010): Natural Durability of a Bagasse Fiber/ Polypropylene Composite Exposed to Rainbow Fungus ( Coriolus versicolor). Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 29, 1028-1037 https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684409102843
 
Nadali Elham, Layeghi Mohammad, Ebrahimi Ghanbar, Naghdi Reza, Jonoobi Mehdi, Khorasani Mohammah Mehdi, Mirbagheri Yaser (2018): Effects of Multiple Extrusions on Structure-property Performance of Natural Fiber High-density Polyethylene Biocomposites. Materials Research, 21, - https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-5373-mr-2017-0301
 
Naghdi R., Hosseini S.Z., Resalati H. (2008): Evaluation of paper properties obtained from maple juvenile wood through Kraft pulping process. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 60: 1465–1472. (In Persian)
 
(2019): Biological removal of chloro-organic compounds from bagasse soda pulp bleaching effluent by Coriolus versicolor. , 15, 29-36 https://doi.org/10.30955/gnj.000648
 
Nevalainen Helena (2017): Editorial Current Advances in Fungal Biotechnology (Part I). Current Biotechnology, 6, 77-77 https://doi.org/10.2174/221155010602170424190046
 
Nourmohammadi K., Rahimi D., Naghdi R., Kartoolinejad D. (2016): Effects of physical and chemical treatments of seed dormancy breaking on seedling quality index (QI) of Caspian locust (Gleditsia caspica Desf.). Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 133: 157–171.
 
Papadopoulos Antonios N. (2008): The effect of acetylation on bending strength of finger jointed beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.). Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 66, 309-310 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-007-0223-3
 
Sablík Pavel, Giagli Kyriaki, Pařil Petr, Baar Jan, Rademacher Peter (2016): Impact of extractive chemical compounds from durable wood species on fungal decay after impregnation of nondurable wood species. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 74, 231-236 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-015-0984-z
 
Shayanmehr F., Jalali S., Hosseinzadeh Colagar A., Yousefzadeh H., Zare H. (2015): Pollen morphology of the genus Alnus Mill. in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 13: 833–847.
 
Silva Nyéssia Fernanda De Sousa, Simões MáRcia Regina, Knob Adriana, De Moraes Sandra Schmidt, Henn Caroline, Da ConceiçãO Silva Jose Luis, Simão Rita De Cássia Garcia, Maller Alexandre, Kadowaki Marina Kimiko (2016): Improvement in the bleaching of kraft pulp with xylanase from Penicillium crustosum FP 11 isolated from the Atlantic forest. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, 34, 119-127 https://doi.org/10.1080/10242422.2016.1212849
 
Singh Adya P. (2012): A review of microbial decay types found in wooden objects of cultural heritage recovered from buried and waterlogged environments. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 13, S16-S20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2012.04.002
 
Singh Adya P., Singh Tripti (2014): Biotechnological applications of wood-rotting fungi: A review. Biomass and Bioenergy, 62, 198-206 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.12.013
 
Tappi standard (1997): T 17. wd-97, Cellulose in wood.
 
Tappi standard (1998): T-222. om-98, Standard methods for acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp.
 
Tavares Ana P.M., Pereira Susana R., Xavier Ana M.R.B. (2017): Biotechnological Applications of Trametes versicolor and their Enzymes. Current Biotechnology, 6, 78-88 https://doi.org/10.2174/2211550105666160510113212
 
Timell T. E. (1967): Recent progress in the chemistry of wood hemicelluloses. Wood Science and Technology, 1, 45-70 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00592255
 
Tomak Eylem Dizman (2014): Changes in chemical composition of decayed Scots pine and beech wood. Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, 21, - https://doi.org/10.1515/secm-2013-0180
 
Valette Nicolas, Perrot Thomas, Sormani Rodnay, Gelhaye Eric, Morel-Rouhier Mélanie (2017): Antifungal activities of wood extractives. Fungal Biology Reviews, 31, 113-123 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2017.01.002
 
Virk Antar Puneet, Sharma Prince, Capalash Neena (2012): Use of laccase in pulp and paper industry. Biotechnology Progress, 28, 21-32 https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.727
 
Woldesenbet F., Virk A.P., Gupta N., Sharma P. (2017): Biobleaching of mixed wood kraft pulp with alkalophilic bacterial xylanase, mannanase and laccase-mediator system. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 3: 32–41.
 
Woodcock D.W., Shier A.D. (2003): Does canopy position affect wood specific gravity in temperate forest trees? Annals of Botany, 91: 529–537.
 
Yang Bin, Wyman Charles E. (2004): Effect of xylan and lignin removal by batch and flowthrough pretreatment on the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover cellulose. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 86, 88-98 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.20043
 
Yang Fang-Fang, Li Yue-Lin, Zhou Guo-Yi, Wenigmann K.O., Zhang De-Qiang, Wenigmann Mike, Liu Shi-Zhong, Zhang Qian-Mei (2010): Dynamics of coarse woody debris and decomposition rates in an old-growth forest in lower tropical China. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 1666-1672 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.046
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences