How close to nature is close-to-nature pine silviculture?

https://doi.org/10.17221/98/2015-JFSCitation:Bílek L., Vacek S., Vacek Z., Remeš J., Král J., Bulušek D., Gallo J. (2016): How close to nature is close-to-nature pine silviculture? J. For. Sci., 62: 24-34.
download PDF
Structural parameters of Scots pine stands (129–191 years) on their natural sites (270–600 m a.s.l.) are described on 6 permanent research plots (PRP; 3 in managed stands using near-natural silvicultural practices and 3 in stands without active forest management for 3 decades at least) in areas of western, central and eastern Bohemia and in the Polish part of the Krkonoše Mts. In the framework of the study structural and growth parameters, horizontal and vertical structure and biodiversity were evaluated on the plots. A comparison of the plots, and of managed and unmanaged plots showed a relatively high variability in different parameters. Nevertheless, the results document that managed stands, compared to forest stands without management, mostly have significantly higher standing volumes (1.5 times in total and 1.7 times in pine), which is caused by more extreme sites. An opposite trend was found out in dead wood volume, which is distinctly higher in unmanaged stands. Differences in the other parameters are not so pronounced, probably because small-scale management is used and because a relatively short time since the stands were left to spontaneous development has elapsed (30–52 years).
References:
Ambrož R., Vacek S., Vacek Z., Král J., Štefančík I. (2015): Structure, growth parameters and regeneration in relation to model development of beech forests with different game management in the Lány Game Enclosure. Lesnícký časopis – Forestry Journal, 61: 78–88.
 
Angelstam P., Kuuluvainen T. (2004): Boreal forest disturbance regimes, successional dynamics and landscape structures – a European perspective. Ecological Bulletins, 51: 117–136.
 
Barbier Stéphane, Gosselin Frédéric, Balandier Philippe (2008): Influence of tree species on understory vegetation diversity and mechanisms involved—A critical review for temperate and boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 254, 1-15  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.038
 
Bauhus Jürgen, Puettmann Klaus, Messier Christian (2009): Silviculture for old-growth attributes. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 525-537  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.01.053
 
Bilek L., Remes J., Zahradnik D. (2011): Managed vs. unmanaged. Structure of beech forest stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) after 50 years of development, Central Bohemia. Forest Systems, 20, 122-  https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2011201-10243
 
Burrascano S., Sabatini F. M., Blasi C. (2011): Testing indicators of sustainable forest management on understorey composition and diversity in southern Italy through variation partitioning. Plant Ecology, 212, 829-841  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-010-9866-y
 
Clark Philip J., Evans Francis C. (1954): Distance to Nearest Neighbor as a Measure of Spatial Relationships in Populations. Ecology, 35, 445-  https://doi.org/10.2307/1931034
 
Coote Linda, Dietzsch Anke C., Wilson Mark W., Graham Conor T., Fuller Lauren, Walsh Aisling T., Irwin Sandra, Kelly Daniel L., Mitchell Fraser J.G., Kelly Thomas C., O’Halloran John (2013): Testing indicators of biodiversity for plantation forests. Ecological Indicators, 32, 107-115  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.03.020
 
Crow T.R., Buckley D.S., Nauertz, E.A., Zasada, J.C. (2002): Effects of management on the composition and structure of northern hardwood forests in Upper Michigan. Forest Science, 48: 129–145.
 
D'Amato Anthony W., Orwig David A., Foster David R. (2008): THE INFLUENCE OF SUCCESSIONAL PROCESSES AND DISTURBANCE ON THE STRUCTURE OF TSUGA CANADENSIS FORESTS. Ecological Applications, 18, 1182-1199  https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0919.1
 
DAVID F. N., MOORE P. G. (1954): Notes on Contagious Distributions in Plant Populations. Annals of Botany, 18, 47-53  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a083381
 
Fabrika M., Ďurský J. (2005): Stromové růstové simulátory. Zvolen, EFRA: 112.
 
Franklin Jerry F, Spies Thomas A, Pelt Robert Van, Carey Andrew B, Thornburgh Dale A, Berg Dean Rae, Lindenmayer David B, Harmon Mark E, Keeton William S, Shaw David C, Bible Ken, Chen Jiquan (2002): Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example. Forest Ecology and Management, 155, 399-423  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00575-8
 
Fraver Shawn, Palik Brian J., Woods Kerry (2012): Stand and cohort structures of old-growth Pinus resinosa-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science, 23, 249-259  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01348.x
 
Fuller R.J. (2001): Ecological impacts of increasing numbers of deer in British woodland. Forestry, 74, 193-199  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/74.3.193
 
Gao Tian, Hedblom Marcus, Emilsson Tobias, Nielsen Anders Busse (2014): The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator. Forest Ecology and Management, 330, 82-93  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.007
 
Gini Corrado (1921): Measurement of Inequality of Incomes. The Economic Journal, 31, 124-  https://doi.org/10.2307/2223319
 
HOPKINS BRIAN, SKELLAM J. G. (1954): A New Method for determining the Type of Distribution of Plant Individuals. Annals of Botany, 18, 213-227  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a083391
 
Chávez Virginia, Macdonald S. Ellen (2012): Partitioning vascular understory diversity in mixedwood boreal forests: The importance of mixed canopies for diversity conservation. Forest Ecology and Management, 271, 19-26  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.12.038
 
Jaehne S., Dohrenbusch A. (1997): Ein Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Bestandesdiversität. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 116, 333-345  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02766909
 
Kaufmann Merrill R, Regan Claudia M, Brown Peter M (2000): Heterogeneity in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests: age and size structure in unlogged and logged landscapes of central Colorado. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 698-711  https://doi.org/10.1139/x99-255
 
Lampainen Johanna, Kuuluvainen Timo, Wallenius Tuomo H., Karjalainen Leena, Vanha-Majamaa Ilkka (2004): Long-term forest structure and regeneration after wildfire in Russian Karelia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 245-256  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2004.tb02259.x
 
Larson Andrew J., Stover Kyle C., Keyes Christopher R. (2012): Effects of restoration thinning on spatial heterogeneity in mixed-conifer forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42, 1505-1517  https://doi.org/10.1139/x2012-100
 
Liira Jaan, Sepp Toivo, Parrest Oliver (2007): The forest structure and ecosystem quality in conditions of anthropogenic disturbance along productivity gradient. Forest Ecology and Management, 250, 34-46  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.03.007
 
Lust N., Muys B., Nachtergale L. (1998): Increase of biodiversity in homogeneous Scots pine stands by an ecologically diversified management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7: 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008892620387
 
Lydersen Jamie M., North Malcolm P., Knapp Eric E., Collins Brandon M. (2013): Quantifying spatial patterns of tree groups and gaps in mixed-conifer forests: Reference conditions and long-term changes following fire suppression and logging. Forest Ecology and Management, 304, 370-382  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.023
 
Mace G.M., Norris K., Fitter A.H. (2012): Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27: 19–26.
 
Maddelein D., Lust N., Meyen S., Muys B. (1990): Dynamics in maturing Scots pine monoculture in north-east Belgium. Silva Gandavensis, 55, -  https://doi.org/10.21825/sg.v55i0.901
 
Maltamo Matti, Kangas Annika, Uuttera Janne, Torniainen Tatu, Saramäki Jussi (2000): Comparison of percentile based prediction methods and the Weibull distribution in describing the diameter distribution of heterogeneous Scots pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 133, 263-274  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00239-X
 
Maltamo Matti, Kangas Annika, Uuttera Janne, Torniainen Tatu, Saramäki Jussi (2000): Comparison of percentile based prediction methods and the Weibull distribution in describing the diameter distribution of heterogeneous Scots pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 133, 263-274  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00239-X
 
Martín-Alcón Santiago, Coll Lluís, Salekin Serajis (2015): Stand-level drivers of tree-species diversification in Mediterranean pine forests after abandonment of traditional practices. Forest Ecology and Management, 353, 107-117  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.022
 
McLachlan Jason S., Foster David R., Menalled Fabian (2000): ANTHROPOGENIC TIES TO LATE-SUCCESSIONAL STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION IN FOUR NEW ENGLAND HEMLOCK STANDS. Ecology, 81, 717-733  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[0717:ATTLSS]2.0.CO;2
 
Millar Constance I., Stephenson Nathan L., Stephens Scott L. (2007): CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTS OF THE FUTURE: MANAGING IN THE FACE OF UNCERTAINTY. Ecological Applications, 17, 2145-2151  https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1715.1
 
Montes Fernando, Rubio Agustín, Barbeito Ignacio, Cañellas Isabel (2008): Characterization of the spatial structure of the canopy in Pinus silvestris L. stands in Central Spain from hemispherical photographs. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 580-590  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.070
 
Montes Fernando, Sánchez Mariola, Río Miren del, Cañellas Isabel (2005): Using historic management records to characterize the effects of management on the structural diversity of forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 207, 279-293  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.10.031
 
Mountford M. D. (1961): On E. C. Pielou's Index of Non-Randomness. The Journal of Ecology, 49, 271-  https://doi.org/10.2307/2257261
 
Näslund M. (1936): Skogsförsöksanstaltens gallringsförsök i tallskog. Meddelanden från Statens Skogsförsöksanstalt, Swedish Institute of Experimental Forestry, 29: 169.
 
Oliver C.D., Larson B.C. (1990): Forest Stand Dynamics. New York, McGraw-Hill: 544.
 
Peterken G.F. (1981): Wooland Conservation and Management. London: Chapman & Hall: 328.
 
Petráš R., Pajtík J. (1991): Sústava Česko-slovenských objemových tabuliek drevín. Lesnícky časopis: 7, 49–56.
 
Pielou E. C. (1959): The Use of Point-to-Plant Distances in the Study of the Pattern of Plant Populations. The Journal of Ecology, 47, 607-  https://doi.org/10.2307/2257293
 
Pielou E.C. (1975): Ecological Diversity. New York, Wiley: 165.
 
Poyatos Rafael, Latron Jérôme, Llorens Pilar (2003): Land Use and Land Cover Change After Agricultural Abandonment. Mountain Research and Development, 23, 362-368  https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2003)023[0362:LUALCC]2.0.CO;2
 
Pretzsch H. (2006). Wissen nutzbar machen für das Management von Waldökosystemen. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald, 61: 1158–1159.
 
Ripley B.D. (1981): Spatial Statistics. New York, John Wiley & Sons: 252.
 
Rouvinen S., Kuuluvainen T. (2005): Tree diameter distributions in natural and managed old Pinus sylvestris-dominated forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 208, 45-61  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.11.021
 
Sánchez Meador Andrew J., Parysow Pablo F., Moore Margaret M. (2011): A New Method for Delineating Tree Patches and Assessing Spatial Reference Conditions of Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona. Restoration Ecology, 19, 490-499  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00652.x
 
Shannon C. E. (1948): A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-423  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x
 
Silver Emily J., D’Amato Anthony W., Fraver Shawn, Palik Brian J., Bradford John B. (2013): Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 291, 110-118  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.033
 
Smith George F., Gittings Tom, Wilson Mark, French Laura, Oxbrough Anne, O’Donoghue Saoirse, O’Halloran John, Kelly Daniel L., Mitchell Fraser J. G., Kelly Tom, Iremonger Susan, McKee Anne-Marie, Giller Paul (2008): Identifying practical indicators of biodiversity for stand-level management of plantation forests. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 991-1015  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-007-9274-3
 
Spies T.A. (1998): Forest structure: a key to the ecosystem. Northwest Science, 72: 34–39.
 
Spies T.A. (2004): Ecological concepts and diversity of old-growth forests. Journal of Forestry, 102: 14–20.
 
Stephenson Nathan L. (1999): REFERENCE CONDITIONS FOR GIANT SEQUOIA FOREST RESTORATION: STRUCTURE, PROCESS, AND PRECISION. Ecological Applications, 9, 1253-1265  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[1253:RCFGSF]2.0.CO;2
 
Sterba H. (2008): Diversity indices based on angle count sampling and their interrelationships when used in forest inventories. Forestry, 81, 587-597  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpn010
 
ter Braak C.J.F., Šmilauer P. (2002): CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User›s Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5). Ithaca, NY, USA. Available at www.canoco.com
 
Tuten Matthew C., Sánchez Meador Andrew, Fulé Peter Z. (2015): Ecological restoration and fine-scale forest structure regulation in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 348, 57-67  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.03.032
 
Uotila A., Maltamo M., Uuttera J., Isomaki A. (2001): Stand structure in seminatural and managed forests in eastern Finland and Russian Karelia. Ecological Bulletins, 49: 149–158.
 
Uotila Anneli, Kouki Jari, Kontkanen Harri, Pulkkinen Päivi (2002): Assessing the naturalness of boreal forests in eastern Fennoscandia. Forest Ecology and Management, 161, 257-277  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00496-0
 
Vacek S., Vacek Z., Podrazský V., Bilek L., Bulušek D., Štefančik I., Remeš J., Šticha V., Ambrož R. (2014): Structural diversity of autochthonous beech forests in Broumovske Stěny national nature reserve, Czech Republic. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 131: 191–214.
 
Vanderwel Mark C, Caspersen John P, Woods Murray E (2006): Snag dynamics in partially harvested and unmanaged northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36, 2769-2779  https://doi.org/10.1139/x06-173
 
Viewegh J., Kusbach A., Mikeska M. (2003): Czech forest ecosystem classification. Journal of Forest Science, 49: 74–82.
 
Weiner Jacob (1985): Size Hierarchies in Experimental Populations of Annual Plants. Ecology, 66, 743-  https://doi.org/10.2307/1940535
 
Weiner Jacob (1990): Asymmetric competition in plant populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 5, 360-364  https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(90)90095-U
 
Zobel K., Zobel M., Peet R. K. (1993): Change in pattern diversity during secondary succession in Estonian forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 489-498  https://doi.org/10.2307/3236076
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences