Occurrence, development and natural enemies of Pemphigus spyrothecae (Homoptera, Pemphigidae)
J. Urbanhttps://doi.org/10.17221/11883-JFSCitation:Urban J. (2002): Occurrence, development and natural enemies of Pemphigus spyrothecae (Homoptera, Pemphigidae). J. For. Sci., 48: 248-270.
In 2001, galls were analysed of Pemphigus spyrothecae Pass. taken in one- to three-week intervals from Populus nigra and P. nigra var. italica at 4 localities in Brno. Fundatrices matured in the first half of June and during the first half of summer produced about 50 offsprings. Virgines produced about 10 offsprings which grew up in winged sexuparae. The winged individuals started to occur in galls from the beginning of August. In galls with intact development, on average 500 aphids developed. Galls with intact development on P. nigra var. italica reached larger average dimensions and contained at least by 4% more aphids than galls on P. nigra. About 5% of fundatrices died already in the 1st instar and other 3 to 6% in higher instars by the beginning of reproduction. At localities under investigation, 7.5 to 39.0% of galls on P. nigra and 3.9 to 13.7% of galls on P. nigra var. italica were occupied by the fly Leucopis puncticornis Meig. (Chamaemyiidae). About 24.3 to 32.2% of galls on P. nigra and 23.3 to 49.3% of galls on P. nigra var. italica were occupied by the bug Anthocoris minki Dohrn (Anthocoridae). Hover flies Heringia heringi (Zett.) and Pipiza festiva Meig. (Syrphidae) killing aphids in 3.8 to 30.4% of galls on P. nigra and 6.5 to 6.8% of galls on P. nigra var. italica were an important regulator. In August (i.e. at the beginning of the formation of winged sexuparae), the majority of galls opened through primary slit-shaped or oval emergence holes. A part (7.8 to 19.5%) of galls with so far intact development, however, remained closed and all aphids contained in them died. Diseases (particularly mycoses) often participated in the accelerated dying of aphids. The effect of mortality factors on the gall size differentiation was evaluated in details. The galls do not cause any leaf area reduction. In the case of mass outbreak, they decrease decorativeness of poplars in street alleys. In August and September, liquid excrements fall out from the galls (honeydew) polluting the environment in villages and housing estates.
Pemphigus spyrothecae; Leucopis puncticornis; Anthocoris minki; Heringia heringi; Pipiza festiva; development; gall size; harmfulness