Habitat features of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) leks in the West Carpathians

https://doi.org/10.17221/11903-JFSCitation:Saniga M. (2002): Habitat features of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) leks in the West Carpathians. J. For. Sci., 48: 415-424.
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Habitat characteristics of 43 capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) leks were studied in the mountains of Central Slovakia (West Carpathians) in 1984–2002. Macro-habitat was described with respect to topography and succession stage. Micro-habitat was described with respect to forest type and forest stand structure. Twenty-seven out of forty-three display grounds were situated in the upper half of the lateral ridges. Sixteen leks were located on hills of the lateral ridges (slope < 10%). All the leks were situated in old succession stages of the forest (80–200 years old). Twenty-seven display grounds were located in natural forests, sixteen leks were situated in man-managed stands more than 80 years old. Leks were situated in a variety of forest types with overstorey tree-density between 400–1,050 stems per ha. Distribution of leks was limited above all by macro-habitat characteristics (elevated sites, old stands). Age-space structure seemed to be a significant micro-habitat feature (preference of multi-layered stands).

 

References:
EIBERLE K., 1974. Waldkundliche Aspekte der Forschung an Rauhfusshühnern. Schweiz. Z. Forstwirtsch., 125: 147–170.
 
Eiberle Kurt (1976): Zur Analyse eines Auerwildbiotops im Schweizerischen Mittelland. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 95, 108-124  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02741022
 
HINTZE J.L., 1997. NCSS ’97 – Statistical system for Windows. User’s Guide 1,2. Number Clutcher Statistical Systems, Kaysville, Utah: 1716.
 
HJORTH I., 1982. Attributes of capercaillie display grounds and the influence of forestry. In: LOVEL T. (ed.), Proc. Int. Symp. Grouse, 1: 26–35.
 
HJORTH I., 1985. The distribution of capercaillie males on leks in relation to the forest structure of the recruiting area. In: LOVEL T., HUDSON P. (eds.), Proc. Int. Symp. Grouse, 3: 217–235.
 
KLAUS S., BERGMANN H.H., ANDREEV A.V., MÜLLER F., PORKERT J., WIESNER J., 1986. Die Auerhühner. Wittenberg-Lutherstadt, Ziemsen Verlag: 276.
 
LARSEN B.B., WEGGE P., 1985. Habitat characteristics of territorial capercaillie cocks during the breeding season. In: LOVEL T., HUDSON P. (eds.), Proc. Int. Symp. Grouse, 3: 236–246.
 
Lewis Richard A. (1981): Characteristics of Persistent and Transient Territorial Sites of Male Blue Grouse. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 45, 1048-  https://doi.org/10.2307/3808128
 
MOSS R., PICOZZI N., 1994. Management of forests for capercaillie in Scotland. For. Comm. Bull., 113: 1–32.
 
MÜLLER F., 1974. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse 10jähriger Auer-wild-Forschung im hessischen Bergland. Allg. Forstz., 29 (39): 834–836.
 
MÜLLER F., 1978. Rauhfusshühner als Biotop-Indikatoren. In: HOFFMANN R.R. (ed.), Wildbiologische Informationen für den Jäger. Jagd u. Hege Ausbildungsbuch II. Stuttgart, Ferdinand Enke Verlag: 57–68.
 
RANDUŠKA D., VOREL J., PLÍVA K., 1986. Fytocenológia
 
a lesnícka typológia. Bratislava, Príroda: 339.
 
Rulstad Jorund, Wegge Per (1987): Habitat characteristics of Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus display grounds in southeastern Norway. Ecography, 10, 219-229  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1987.tb00762.x
 
SANIGA M., 1996a. Habitat characteristics of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) leks in Central Slovakia. Biológia (Bratislava), 51: 191–199.
 
SANIGA M., 1996b. Distribution, habitat preferences and breed- ing biology of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) population in the Veľká Fatra Mountains (West Carpathians). Biológia (Bratislava), 51: 201–211.
 
SCHERZINGER W., 1976. Rauhfuss-Hühner. Schriftenreihe des Bayerischen Staatsministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten. Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald, Heft 2: 1–85.
 
SCHRÖDER W., 1974. Über den Einfluss der Forstwirtschaft auf das Auerhuhn in den Bayerischen Alpen. Allg. Forstz., 29 (39): 825–828.
 
SCHRÖDER W., ZEIMENTZ K., FELDNER R., 1982. Das Auerhuhn in Bayern. Scr.–R. Bayer. Landesamt. Umweltsch., 49: 1–105.
 
SEISKARI P., 1962. On the winter ecology of capercaillie, Tetrao urogallus, and black grouse, Lyrurus tetrix, in Finland. Pap. Game Res., 22: 1–119.
 
VALKEAJÄRVI P., IJÄS L., 1986. On the display requirements of capercaillie in Central Finland. Suomen Riista, 33: 5–18.
 
Wegge Per, Rolstad J�rund (1986): Size and spacing of capercaillie leks in relation to social behavior and habitat. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 19, 401-408  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00300542
 
ZAR J.H., 1996. Biostatistical analysis. Third edition. New Jersey, Uppersaadle River, Prentice Hall: 662.
 
EIBERLE K., 1974. Waldkundliche Aspekte der Forschung an Rauhfusshühnern. Schweiz. Z. Forstwirtsch., 125: 147–170.
 
Eiberle Kurt (1976): Zur Analyse eines Auerwildbiotops im Schweizerischen Mittelland. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 95, 108-124  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02741022
 
HINTZE J.L., 1997. NCSS ’97 – Statistical system for Windows. User’s Guide 1,2. Number Clutcher Statistical Systems, Kaysville, Utah: 1716.
 
HJORTH I., 1982. Attributes of capercaillie display grounds and the influence of forestry. In: LOVEL T. (ed.), Proc. Int. Symp. Grouse, 1: 26–35.
 
HJORTH I., 1985. The distribution of capercaillie males on leks in relation to the forest structure of the recruiting area. In: LOVEL T., HUDSON P. (eds.), Proc. Int. Symp. Grouse, 3: 217–235.
 
KLAUS S., BERGMANN H.H., ANDREEV A.V., MÜLLER F., PORKERT J., WIESNER J., 1986. Die Auerhühner. Wittenberg-Lutherstadt, Ziemsen Verlag: 276.
 
LARSEN B.B., WEGGE P., 1985. Habitat characteristics of territorial capercaillie cocks during the breeding season. In: LOVEL T., HUDSON P. (eds.), Proc. Int. Symp. Grouse, 3: 236–246.
 
Lewis Richard A. (1981): Characteristics of Persistent and Transient Territorial Sites of Male Blue Grouse. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 45, 1048-  https://doi.org/10.2307/3808128
 
MOSS R., PICOZZI N., 1994. Management of forests for capercaillie in Scotland. For. Comm. Bull., 113: 1–32.
 
MÜLLER F., 1974. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse 10jähriger Auer-wild-Forschung im hessischen Bergland. Allg. Forstz., 29 (39): 834–836.
 
MÜLLER F., 1978. Rauhfusshühner als Biotop-Indikatoren. In: HOFFMANN R.R. (ed.), Wildbiologische Informationen für den Jäger. Jagd u. Hege Ausbildungsbuch II. Stuttgart, Ferdinand Enke Verlag: 57–68.
 
RANDUŠKA D., VOREL J., PLÍVA K., 1986. Fytocenológia
 
a lesnícka typológia. Bratislava, Príroda: 339.
 
Rulstad Jorund, Wegge Per (1987): Habitat characteristics of Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus display grounds in southeastern Norway. Ecography, 10, 219-229  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1987.tb00762.x
 
SANIGA M., 1996a. Habitat characteristics of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) leks in Central Slovakia. Biológia (Bratislava), 51: 191–199.
 
SANIGA M., 1996b. Distribution, habitat preferences and breed- ing biology of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) population in the Veľká Fatra Mountains (West Carpathians). Biológia (Bratislava), 51: 201–211.
 
SCHERZINGER W., 1976. Rauhfuss-Hühner. Schriftenreihe des Bayerischen Staatsministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten. Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald, Heft 2: 1–85.
 
SCHRÖDER W., 1974. Über den Einfluss der Forstwirtschaft auf das Auerhuhn in den Bayerischen Alpen. Allg. Forstz., 29 (39): 825–828.
 
SCHRÖDER W., ZEIMENTZ K., FELDNER R., 1982. Das Auerhuhn in Bayern. Scr.–R. Bayer. Landesamt. Umweltsch., 49: 1–105.
 
SEISKARI P., 1962. On the winter ecology of capercaillie, Tetrao urogallus, and black grouse, Lyrurus tetrix, in Finland. Pap. Game Res., 22: 1–119.
 
VALKEAJÄRVI P., IJÄS L., 1986. On the display requirements of capercaillie in Central Finland. Suomen Riista, 33: 5–18.
 
Wegge Per, Rolstad J�rund (1986): Size and spacing of capercaillie leks in relation to social behavior and habitat. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 19, 401-408  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00300542
 
ZAR J.H., 1996. Biostatistical analysis. Third edition. New Jersey, Uppersaadle River, Prentice Hall: 662.
 
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