Biology and harmfulness of Eriosoma (= Schizoneura) ulmi (L.) (Aphidinea, Pemphigidae) in elm
J. Urbanhttps://doi.org/10.17221/4710-JFSCitation:Urban J. (2003): Biology and harmfulness of Eriosoma (= Schizoneura) ulmi (L.) (Aphidinea, Pemphigidae) in elm. J. For. Sci., 49: 359-379.
The paper deals with the occurrence, development, natural enemies and harmfulness of a heteroecious aphid Eriosoma (= Schizoneura) ulmi (L.) which showed outbreaks in elm Ulmus glabra Huds. in Moravia in 2002. At main localities under study in Bílovice nad Svitavou and Brno-Jundrov, the aphid damaged about 63% leaves. Larvae of fundatrices hatched from mid-April and their development from hatching to maturity took about 14 days. Mature fundatrices occurred in May and reproduced for a period of 14 days. Their average physiological fecundity amounted to 311 larvae and ecological fecundity 291 larvae. Migrantes alatae occurred in galls from 18 May to 15 June and their physiological fecundity was about 22 larvae. Leaves were damaged even by 3 galls of an average length of 41 and width 11 mm. Sucking affected on average 11 cm2, i.e. 27% (in case of the occurrence of 2 or 3 even 100%) leaf area. Natural enemies killed 90% aphids. A bug Anthocoris confusus Reut. killing aphids in 80% galls was the most effective control agent. Its eggs occurred from 25 April to 25 May and nymphs from 3 May to 25 June. Larvae of Syrphidae [mainly Syrphus ribesii (L.)] killed the aphids in 4 and birds in 6% galls. E. ulmi should be considered to be an important occasional pest of orchards and forests.Keywords:
Eriosoma (= Schizoneura) ulmi; Ulmus spp.; outbreak; host species; development; gall characteristics; predators; harmfulness