Spatio-temporal patterns of the Norway spruce decline in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki (Western Carpathians) in southern Poland
W. Grodzkihttps://doi.org/10.17221/2155-JFSCitation:Grodzki W. (2007): Spatio-temporal patterns of the Norway spruce decline in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki (Western Carpathians) in southern Poland. J. For. Sci., 53: 38-44.
A dramatic forest decline due to the bark beetle outbreak, which occurs in the Norway spruce stands in the Western Beskidy (southern Poland) since 2003, was started after severe physiological drought during winter time. An analysis describing some spatio-temporal characteristics of this process, with special regard to the patterns of bark beetle occurrence related to root fungal diseases, is presented. In 2003 the bark beetle occurrence level assessed as high and catastrophic was recorded on 40% of the area, while in 2006 – on 59%. The range of Armillaria root disease and bark beetle outbreak increased towards higher altitudes, including the zone above 1,000 m a.s.l. The wind damage in 2004 and 2007, and high temperatures in the summer 2006, further stimulated the increase in bark beetle populations level. Some conclusions on possible development of the outbreak and recommendations concerning related needs in forest protection, are given.Keywords:Picea abies (L.) Karst.; bark beetles; mountain forests; spatial analysis