Management of Alternaria leaf blight in tomato plants by mentha essential oil K., Bokhari N.A. (2020): Management of Alternaria leaf blight in tomato plants by mentha essential oil. Plant Protect. Sci., 56: 191-196.
download PDF

The essential oil obtained by the hydro-distillation of the leaves of Mentha arvensis Linnaeus was evaluated for its antifungal activity against the causal agent of the Alternaria blight of tomatoes, i.e., Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler. The antifungal activity of the mentha essential oil was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the mentha oil was also identified by GCMS analysis. The in vitro test revealed that the maximum inhibition in the mycelial growth (93.6%) and conidia germination (90.6%) was at the highest concentration (40 µL/mL), furthermore, it was found that the inhibition of the mycelial growth and conidia germination was dose dependent. The in vivo test proved that the application of the mentha essential oil (40 µL/mL) significantly increased the plant height (84.6%), fresh weight (81.5%) and dry weight (80.0%) when compared to the untreated tomato plants. The disease incidence was 3.5 in the untreated plants, while it was 0.93 for the mentha essential oil treated plants and was 0.08 in the carbendazim treated plants. The GC-MS analysis of the mentha essential oil identified 18 compounds in total, among which the percentage of menthol was the highest (69.2%). The mentha essential oil was successful in managing the Alternaria leaf blight in the tomato plants. Therefore, it can be explored further for the development of a natural fungicide.

Agrios G.N. (2005): Plant Pathology. 5th Ed. Amsterdam-Boston, Elsevier-Academic Press.
Akhtar K.P., Matin M., Mirza J.H., Shakir A.S., Rafique, M. (1994). Some studies on the post-harvest diseases of tomato fruits and their chemical control. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6: 125–129.
Alshaikh N., Perveen, K. (2017): Anti-candidal activity and chemical composition of essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 20: 951–958.
Ara I., Bukhari N.A., Perveen K., Bakir M.A. (2012). Antifungal actinomycetes from soil in Ri-yadh, Saudi Arabia: Evaluation for their ability to control Alternaria blight on tomato plant (Ly-copersicon lycopersicum) grown in green house pot trial. African Journal of Agricultural Re-search, 7: 2042–2050.
Biermann B., Lindermann R.C. (1981): Quantifying vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhiza, proposed method towards standardization. New Phytologist, 87: 63–67.
Bokhari N., Perveen K., Al Khulaifi M., Kumar A., Siddique I. (2016): In vitro antibacterial activ-ity and chemical composition of essential oil of Mentha arvensis linn. Leaves. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 19: 907–915.
Chung K.R. (2012): Stress response and pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alter-naria alternata. Scientifica (Cairo), 2012: doi: 10.6064/2012/635431.
Chutia M., Bhuyan P., Pathak M., Sarma T., Boruah, P. (2009): Antifungal activity and chemical composition of citrus reticulata blanco essential oil against phytopathogens from north east india. Lwt-Food Science and Technology, 42: 777–780.
Clevenger J.F. (1928): Apparatus for the determination of volatile oils. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Association, 17: 346.
Edris A., Farrag E. (2003): Antifungal activity of peppermint and sweet basil essential oils and their major aroma constituents on some plant pathogenic fungi from the vapor phase. Nahrung-Food, 47:117–121.
Feng W., Zheng X. (2007): Essential oils to control Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo. Food Control, 18: 1126–1130.
França K.R.S., Silva T.L., Cardoso T.A.L., Ugulino A.L.N., Rodrigues A.P.M., de Mendonça Júnior A.F. (2018): In vitro effect of essential oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita l.) on the my-celial growth of Alternaria alternata. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 26: 1–8.
Iscan G., Kirimer N., Kurkcuoglu M., Baser K., Demirci F. (2002): Antimicrobial screening of Mentha piperita essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50: 3943–3946. Isman M. (2000). Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Protection, 19: 603–608.
Jha S., Regmi S. (2018): Antifungal activity of plant essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum schlecht. and Aspergillus niger van tiegh. from papaya. International Journal of Current Trends in Science and Technology, 8: 20196–20204.
Kumar A., Kudachikar V. (2018): Antifungal properties of essential oils against anthracnose dis-ease: A critical appraisal. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 125: 133–144.
Kuinkel S., Tiwari R.D., Bhattarai S. (2016): Antifungal activity of essential oils against Glo-merella cingulata (ston.) Spauld. & H. Schrenk. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 3: 233–237
Madjouko A.M., Tchameni S.N., Tchinda S.E., Jazet P.M.D., Kamsu P.N., Kamga V.A.M.S., Sameza M.L., Tchoumbougnang F., Menut C. (2019): Inhibitory effects of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on Colletotrichum musae: The causal agent of bana-nas anthracnose. Journal of Phytopathology, 167: 257–264.
Mehmood T., Shafique S., Zaheer Z. (2014): Fungitoxic potential of Tagetes erectus for the man-agement of alternaria alternata strains of tomato. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 1047–1054.
Mona M.M., Ragab Ashour A.M.A., Abdel-Kader M.M., El-Mougy NS., Abdel-Aziz A. (2016): Fungicidal and fungistatic activity of some plant essential oils against Alternaria solani the caus-al of tomato early blight. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 7: 998–1004.
Nascimento F.R., Cardoso M.G., Sousa P.E., Lima R.K., Salgado A.P.S.P., Guimarães L.G.L. (2008): Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (piper hispidinervum c. Dc) e do emulsificante tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (fungi: Hyphomycetes). Acta Amazonica, 38: 503–508.
Pérez-González A., Judith Cavazos A., Genoveva Rosano O., Elie Girgis El Kassis, Beatriz Pé-rez-A. (2016): Effect of emulsified oregano oil on Alternaria alternata (in vitro tests) and on Lycopersicum esculentum mill seedlings (in vivo tests). Journal of Agriculture and Environ-mental Sciences, 5: 168–176.
Pino J. A., Rosado A., Fuentes V. (1996): Chemical composition of the essential oil of Mentha arvensis L. Var. Piperascens malinv. From cuba. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 8: 685–686.
Sharma N., Triparthi A. (2006): Fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Citrus sinensis on post-harvest pathogens. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 22: 587-593.
Simmons E. G. (1992): Alternaria taxonomy: Current status, viewpoint, challenge.In: V.A. Chelkowski J. (Ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
Singh A.K., Raina V.K., Naqvi A.A., Patra N.K., Kumar B., Ram P., Khanuja S.P.S. (2005): Es-sential oil composition and chemo arrays of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.F. Piperascens ma-linvaud ex. Holmes) cultivars. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 20: 302–305.
Singh J, Tripathi N.N. (1999): Inhibition of storage fungi of blackgram (Vigna mungo) by some essential oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 14: 1–4.<1::AID-FFJ735>3.0.CO;2-R
Thawkar B.S. (2016): Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mentha arvensis. Interna-tional Journal of Green Pharmacy, 10: 71–76.
Tian J., Ban X., Zeng H., He J., Chen Y., Wang Y. (2012): The mechanism of antifungal action of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus. PLoS ONE 7: e30147, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030147
Tiwari P. (2016): Recent advances and challenges in trichome research and essential oil biosyn-thesis in Mentha arvensis L. Industrial Crops Production 82: 141 –148.
Yang C., Hamel C., Vujanovic V., Gan, Y. (2011): Fungicide: modes of action and possible im-pact on non-target microorganisms. International Scholarly Research Network, ISRN Ecology, 2011. doi:10.5402/2011/130289
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences