Endophytic fungi and latent pathogens in the sedge Carex secalina (Cyperaceae), a critically endangered species in Europe

https://doi.org/10.17221/120/2018-PPSCitation:Karolina G., Ewa W., Rafał S., Marlena L. (2019): Endophytic fungi and latent pathogens in the sedge Carex secalina (Cyperaceae), a critically endangered species in Europe. Plant Protect. Sci., 55: 102-108.
download PDF

Endophytic fungi are widespread in plants and affect the host fitness and population size. We found 12 fungal taxa in C. secalina, a critically endangered species in several European countries, at two study sites in Poland. The most frequently occurring fungal taxa were Colletotrichum destructivum and Acremonium sp. Both taxa were found in half of the examined tussocks. The highest number of fungal taxa was noted in the C. secalina plants growing in the roadside area, where 7 of the 12 identified fungal taxa occurred. These fungi, inhabiting leaf tissues, are known for their pathogenicity but no visible symptoms of any diseases were observed on C. secalina leaves. This suggests that these fungi are latent pathogens.

Altschul Stephen F., Gish Warren, Miller Webb, Myers Eugene W., Lipman David J. (1990): Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology, 215, 403-410 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2
Arnold A. E., Mejia L. C., Kyllo D., Rojas E. I., Maynard Z., Robbins N., Herre E. A. (2011): Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 15649-15654 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2533483100
Bock W. (1908): Taschenflora von Bromberg (Das Netzegebiet). Bromberg, Mitteler’sche Buchhandlung.
Bogdanowicz A.M., Olejniczak P., Lembicz M., Żukowski W. (2011): Costs of reproduction in life history of a perennial plant Carex secalina. Central European Journal of Biology, 6: 870–877.
Busby Posy E., Ridout Mary, Newcombe George (2016): Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease. Plant Molecular Biology, 90, 645-655 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11103-015-0412-0
Canals Rosa M., San-Emeterio Leticia, Sanchez-Marquez Salud, Ruiz de los Mozos Igor, Pujol Pablo, Zabalgogeazcoa Iñigo (2014): Non-systemic fungal endophytes in Carex brevicollis may influence the toxicity of the sedge to livestock. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 12, 623- https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2014123-5219
Chmiel J., Lembicz M., Żukowski W. (2014): Carex secalina Willd. ex Wahlenb. – turzyca żytowata. In: Kaźmierczakowa R., Zarzycki K., Mirek Z. (eds): Polish Red Data Book of Plants. Pteridophytes and Flowering Plants. Kraków, W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Institute of Nature Conservation: 508–510.
Crous P.W., Shivas R.G., Quaedvlieg W., van der Bank M., Zhang Y., Summerell B.A., Guarro J., Wingfield M.J., Wood A.R., Alfenas A.C., Braun U., Cano-Lira J.F., García D., Marin-Felix Y., Alvarado P., Andrade J.P., Armengol J., Assefa A., den Breeÿen A., Camele I., Cheewangkoon R., De Souza J.T., Duong T.A., Esteve-Raventós F., Fournier J., Frisullo S., García-Jiménez J., Gardiennet A., Gené J., Hernández-Restrepo M., Hirooka Y., Hospenthal D.R., King A., Lechat C., Lombard L., Mang S.M., Marbach P.A.S., Marincowitz S., Marin-Felix Y., Montaño-Mata N.J., Moreno G., Perez C.A., Pérez Sierra A.M., Robertson J.L., Roux J., Rubio E., Schumacher R.K., Stchigel A.M., Sutton D.A., Tan Y.P., Thompson E.H., Vanderlinde E., Walker A.K., Walker D.M., Wickes B.L., Wong P.T.W., Groenewald J.Z. (2014): Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 32, 184-306 https://doi.org/10.3767/003158514X682395
Damm U., O'Connell R.J., Groenewald J.Z., Crous P.W. (2014): The Colletotrichum destructivum species complex – hemibiotrophic pathogens of forage and field crops. Studies in Mycology, 79, 49-84 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2014.09.003
DEAN RALPH, VAN KAN JAN A. L., PRETORIUS ZACHARIAS A., HAMMOND-KOSACK KIM E., DI PIETRO ANTONIO, SPANU PIETRO D., RUDD JASON J., DICKMAN MARTY, KAHMANN REGINE, ELLIS JEFF, FOSTER GARY D. (2012): The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology, 13, 414-430 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2011.00783.x
Dominiak Martyna, Jakubas Emilia (2015): A new locality of weeping alkaligrass Carex secalina (Cyperaceae) in Poland. Steciana, 19, 33-37 https://doi.org/10.12657/steciana.019.005
Egorova T.V. (1999): The sedges (Carex L.) of Russia and adjacent States (within the limits of the former USSR). St. Petersburg St., Petersburg State Chemical-Pharmaceutical Academy and St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Ellis M. L., Arias M. M. Díaz, Leandro L. F., Munkvold G. P. (2012): First Report of Fusarium armeniacum Causing Seed Rot and Root Rot on Soybean ( Glycine max ) in the United States. Plant Disease, 96, 1693-1693 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0429-PDN
Ernst Michael, Mendgen Kurt W., Wirsel Stefan G. R. (2003): Endophytic Fungal Mutualists: Seed-Borne Stagonospora Spp. Enhance Reed Biomass Production in Axenic Microcosms. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 16, 580-587 https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2003.16.7.580
Ferrigo Davide, Raiola Alessandro, Causin Roberto (2016): Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management. Molecules, 21, 627- https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050627
Freeman Stanley, Katan Talma, Shabi Ezra (1998): Characterization of Colletotrichum Species Responsible for Anthracnose Diseases of Various Fruits. Plant Disease, 82, 596-605 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.6.596
GARDES M., BRUNS T. D. (1993): ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes - application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology, 2, 113-118 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x
Herre Edward Allen, Mejía Luis C., Kyllo Damond A., Rojas Enith, Maynard Zuleyka, Butler Andre, Van Bael Sunshine A. (2007): ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ANTI-PATHOGEN EFFECTS OF TROPICAL FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES AND MYCORRHIZAE. Ecology, 88, 550-558 https://doi.org/10.1890/05-1606
Holub J., Procházka F. (2000): Red list of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia, 72: 187–230.
Hyde K.D., Cai L., McKenzie E.H.C., Yang Y.L., Zhang J.Z., Prihastuti H. (2009): Colletotrichum: a catalogue of confusion. Fungal Diversity, 39: 1–17.
Katoch M., Paul A., Singh G., Sridhar S. N. C. (2017): Fungal endophytes associated with Viola odorata Linn. as bioresource for pancreatic lipase inhibitors. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17, - https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1893-y
Lazreg F., Belabid L., Sanchez J., Gallego E., Garrido-Cardenas J. A., Elhaitoum A. (2013): First Report of Fusarium acuminatum Causing Damping-Off Disease on Aleppo Pine in Algeria. Plant Disease, 97, 557-557 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0608-PDN
Lembicz Marlena, Bogdanowicz Agnieszka, Chmiel Julian, Żukowski Waldemar (2011): Carex secalina (Cyperaceae), a critically endangered species of Europe: historic and new localities in Poland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 78, 311-320 https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2009.041
Lembicz Marlena, Olejniczak Paweł, Żukowski Waldemar, Bogdanowicz Agnieszka M. (2011): Effect of mother plant age on germination and size of seeds and seedlings in the perennial sedge Carex secalina (Cyperaceae). Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 206, 158-163 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2010.09.006
Liu L. P., Liu Y. N., Yang L. Y., Lu B. H., Yang L. N., Wang X., Li Y., Gao J., Hsiang T. (2017): First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum destructivum on Curly Dock in China. Plant Disease, 101, 256- https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-16-1084-PDN
Ludwig G., Schnittler M. (1996): Rote liste gefändeter Pflanzen Deutschlands. Schriftenreiche für Vegetationskunde H. 28. Bonn-Bad Godesbeg, Bundesamt für Naturschutz.
Macia-Vincente J.G., Jansson H.B., Abdullah S.K., Descals E., Salinas J., Lopez-Llorca L.V. (2008a): Fungal root endophytes from natural vegetation in Mediterranean environments with special reference to Fusarium spp. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 64: 90–105.
Macia-Vincente J.G., Jansson H.B., Mendgen K., Lopez-Llorca L.V. (2008b): Colonization of barley roots by endophytic fungi and their reduction of take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 54: 600–609.
Manandhar J. B. (1986): Colletotrichum destructivum, the Anamorph of Glomerella glycines. Phytopathology, 76, 282- https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-76-282
Martin Ruth C., Dombrowski James E. (2015): Isolation and Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Grasses along the Oregon Coast. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 06, 3216-3230 https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2015.619313
Meusel H., Jäger E., Weinert E. (1965): Vergleichende Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora 1. Jena, G. Fischer Verlag.
Oliver Richard P., Friesen Timothy L., Faris Justin D., Solomon Peter S. (2012): Stagonospora nodorum : From Pathology to Genomics and Host Resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 50, 23-43 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-173019
Petrini O. (1986): Taxonomy of endophytic fungi of aerial plant tissues. In: Fokkema N.J., van den Heuvel J. (eds): Microbiology of Phyllosphere. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 175–187.
Petrini O. (1991): Fungal endophytes of tree leaves. In: Andrews J.H., Hirano S.S. (eds): Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Brock/Springer Series in Contemporary Bioscience. New York, Springer: 179–197.
Rodriguez R. J., White Jr J. F., Arnold A. E., Redman R. S. (2009): Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles. New Phytologist, 182, 314-330 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02773.x
Sandecki R. (2016): The sedge Carex secalina – critically endangered species in Poland: new locality in the breeding colony of black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. Biodiversity: Research and Conservation, 42: 27–31.
Scheuer C. (2010): Mycotheca Graecensis, Fasc. 23 (Nos 441–460). Fritschiana (Graz), 66: 1–9.
Serdani M., Crous P.W., Holz G., Petrini O. (1998): Endophytic fungi associated with core rot of apples in South Africa, with specific reference to Alternaria species. Sydowia, 50: 257–271.
Tao Gang, Liu Zuo-Yi, Liu Fang, Gao Ya-Hui, Cai Lei (2013): Endophytic Colletotrichum species from Bletilla ochracea (Orchidaceae), with descriptions of seven new speices. Fungal Diversity, 61, 139-164 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-013-0254-5
Tomioka Keisuke, Nishikawa Junji, Moriwaki Jouji, Sato Toyozo (2011): Anthracnose of snapdragon caused by Colletotrichum destructivum. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 77, 60-63 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-010-0278-6
Urbański J. (1930): Rezultaty wycieczek florystycznych po Wielkopolsce wraz z projektami ochrony stanowisk rzadkich roślin. Wydawnictwo Okręgowe Komisji Ochrony Przyrody na Wielkopolskę i Pomorze, 1: 37– 46.
Vitale S., Santori A., Wajnberg E., Castagnone-Sereno P., Luongo L., Belisario A. (2011): Morphological and Molecular Analysis of Fusarium lateritium , the Cause of Gray Necrosis of Hazelnut Fruit in Italy. Phytopathology, 101, 679-686 https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-04-10-0120
Wang C.W., Ai J., Fan S.T., Lv H.Y., Qin H.Y., Yang Y.M., Liu Y.X. (2015): Fusarium acuminatum: A new pathogen causing postharvest rot on stored kiwifruit in China. Stagonospora nodorum: From pathology to genomics and host resistance. Plant Disease, 99: 1644.
White T., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J. (1990): Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis M., Gelfand D., Shinsky J., White T. (eds): PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. New York, Academic Press: 315–322.
Wilkoń-Michalska J. (1963): Halofity Kujaw. Studia Societatis Scientiarum Torunensis Section D, 7(1): 122.
Wodziczko A., Krawiec F., Urbański J. (1938): Pomniki i zabytki przyrody Wielkopolski. Wydawnictwo Okręgowe Komisji Ochrony Przyrody na Wielkopolskę i Pomorze, 8: 313–360.
Zahn Geoffrey, Amend Anthony S. (2017): Foliar microbiome transplants confer disease resistance in a critically-endangered plant. PeerJ, 5, e4020- https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4020
Zając A., Zając M. (1993): Carex secalina Willd. ex Wahlenb. – turzyca żytowata. In: Zarzycki K., Kaźmierczakowa R. (eds): Polish Plant Red Data Book. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. Kraków, W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Institute of Nature Conservation: 250–251.
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences