Larval feeding of Cydalima perspectalis on box trees with a focus on the spatial and temporal distribution

https://doi.org/10.17221/126/2019-PPSCitation:Kulfan J., Dzurenko M., Parák M., Sarvašová L., Saniga M., Brown P., Zach P. (2020): Larval feeding of Cydalima perspectalis on box trees with a focus on the spatial and temporal distribution. Plant Protect. Sci., 56: 197-205.
download PDF

The box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis is an invasive pest on box trees originating from Eastern Asia which spread throughout Europe. We assessed the efficacy of photo-eclectors (emergence boxes) for the detection of its larvae. We also investigated their spatial distribution on the hosts and the spatial and temporal distribution of the leaf damage caused by this pest in Slovakia. Our results showed non-uniform vertical distribution of the overwintering larvae and leaf damage on the trees. The larval abundance in the spring was significantly affected by the height of the branches above the ground. During spring, the larvae occurred most abundantly in the upper parts of the trees. The leaf damage was greatest in the lower parts throughout the growing season. During the progress of the infestation, the development of the damage in the lower and middle parts was similar. In the upper part, the initial increase in the damage was slow, but accelerated four months before the complete defoliation. The field estimation of the proportion of damaged leaves and the accurate assessment based on counting the damaged leaves suggest a consis­tency between these estimates. Hence, a quick field estimation of the leaf damage may be utilised by horticultural practices.

References:
Akıncı H.A., Kurdoğlu O. (2019): Damage level of Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambi-dae) on naturally growing and ornamental box populations in Artvin, Turkey. Kastamonu Ün-iversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 19: 144–151.
 
Ali A., Luttrell R.G., Pitre H.N. (1990): Feeding sites and distribution of fall armyworm (Lepi-doptera: Noctuidae) larvae on cotton. Environmental Entomology, 19: 1060–1067. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/19.4.1060
 
Badano D., Caracciolo D., Mariotti M., Raineri V. (2019): Destruction of a protected habitat by an invasive alien species: the case of Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) in the box tree for-mations of Liguria (North-West Italy) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). SHILAP Revista de Lepidop-terologia, 185: 87–95.
 
Basset Y., Springate N.D., Aberlenc H.P., Delvare G. (1997):
 
A review of methods for sampling arthropods in tree canopies. In: Stork N.E., Adis J., Didham R.K. (eds): Canopy Arthropods. London, Chapman & Hall: 27–52.
 
Baur B., Jung J., Rusterholz H.P. (2019): Defoliation of wild native box trees (Buxus sempervi-rens): Does box rust (Puccinia buxi) infection influence herbivory, survival and growth of the invasive Cydalima perspectalis? Journal of Applied Entomology, 143: 766–775. https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12640
 
Bras A., Avtzis D.N., Kenis M., Li H., Vétek G., Bernard A., Courtin C., Rousselet J., Roques A., Auger-Rozenberg M.A. (2019): A complex invasion story underlies the fast spread of the invasive box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis) across Europe. Journal of Pest Science, 92: 1187–1202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-019-01111-x
 
Fora C.G., Poşta D.S. (2015): Cydalima perspectalis Walk. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a danger-ous pest of Buxus sempervirens in Timis County, Romania. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, 19: 26–32.
 
Inoue H. (1982): Pyralidae. In: Inoue H., Sugi S., Kuroko H., Moriuti S., Kawabe A. (eds): Moths of Japan 1. Tokyo, Kodansha: 307–404.
 
Kenis M., Nacambo S., Leuthardt F.L.G., Domenico F.D., Haye T. (2013): The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, in Europe: horticultural pest or environmental disaster? Aliens: The Inva-sive Species Bulletin, 33: 38–41.
 
Kulfan J., Kula E., Zach P., Dvořáčková K., Patočka J., Kršiak, B. (2010): Caterpillar assemblag-es on introduced blue spruce: differences from native Norway spruce. Allgemeine Forst-und Jagdzeitung, 181: 188–194.
 
Kulfan J., Dvořáčková K., Zach P., Parák M., Svitok M. (2016): Distribution of lepidopteran lar-vae on Norway spruce: Effects of slope and crown aspect. Environmental Entomology, 45: 436–445.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv221
 
Laird N.M., Ware J.H. (1982): Random-effects models for longitudinal data. Biometrics, 38: 963–974. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529876
 
Leuthardt F.L., Baur B. (2013): Oviposition preference and larval development of the invasive moth Cydalima perspectalis on five European box tree varieties. Journal of Applied Entomolo-gy, 137: 437–444. https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12013
 
Maruyama T., Shinkaji N. (1991): The life cycle of the box tree pyralid, Glyphodes per-spectalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). II. Developmental characteristics of larvae. Japa-nese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 35: 221–230. (in Japanese with English ab-stract) https://doi.org/10.1303/jjaez.35.221
 
Matošević D. (2013): Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae), new inva-sive insect pest in Croatia. South-east European Forestry, 4: 89–94. https://doi.org/10.15177/seefor.13-09
 
Nacambo S., Leuthardt F.L., Wan H., Li H., Haye T., Baur B., Weiss R.M., Kenis M. (2014): Development characteristics of the box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis and its potential distri-bution in Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology, 138: 14–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12078
 
Načeski S., Papazova-Anakieva I., Ivanov B., Lazarevska S., Šurbevski B. (2018): Occurrence of the new invasive insect Cydalima perspectalis Walker on box tree in the Republic of Macedo-nia. Contributions, Section of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences, 39: 133–139. https://doi.org/10.20903/csnmbs.masa.2018.39.2.126
 
Parák M., Kulfan J., Zach P. (2015): Are the moth larvae able to withstand tree fall caused by wind storm? Annals of Forest Research, 58: 185–190. https://doi.org/10.15287/afr.2015.346
 
Paula-Moraes S.V., Hunt T.E., Wright R.J., Hein G.L., Blankenship E.E. (2012): On-plant movement and feeding of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) early instars on corn. Environmental Entomology, 41: 1494–1500. https://doi.org/10.1603/EN12149
 
Penchevа A., Yovkova M. (2016): New data on alien insect pests of ornamental plants in Bulgar-ia. Forestry Ideas, 22: 17–33.
 
R Core Team (2019): R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, R Foun-dation for Statistical Computing. Available at www.R-project.org/ (accessed July 1, 2019).
 
Raineri V., Mariotti M. (2017): Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) and the threats for the Natura 2000 habitat 5110 in Liguria (NW-Italy). BMIB-Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici, 79: 215–236.
 
Roy H.E., Rorke S.L., Beckmann B., Booy O., Botham M.S., Brown P.M.J., Harrower C., Noble D., Sewell J., Walker K. (2015): The contribution of volunteer recorders to our understanding of biological invasions. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 115: 678–689. https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12518
 
Salisbury A., Korycinska A., Halstead A.J. (2012): The first occurrence of larvae of the box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in private gardens in the UK. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 25: 1–5.
 
Šefrová H., Laštůvka Z., Laštůvka A. (2019): Zavíječ zimostrázový nás trápí stále víc. Agromanuál, 8: 52–54.
 
Sternberg M., Shoshany M. (2001): Aboveground biomass allocation and water content relation-ships in Mediterranean trees and shrubs in two climatological regions in Israel. Plant Ecology, 157: 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013916422201
 
Torres J.B., Faria C.A., Evangelista W.S., Pratissoli D. (2001): Within-plant distribution of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) immature in processing tomatoes, with notes on plant phe-nology. Integrated Journal of Pest Management, 47: 173–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/02670870010011091
 
Van der Straten M.J., Muus T.S. (2010): The box tree pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis (Lepidop-tera: Crambidae), an invasive alien moth ruining box trees. Proceedings of the Netherlands En-tomological Society Meeting, 21: 107–111.
 
Venables W.N., Ripley B.D. (2002): Modern Applied Statistics with S. 4th Ed. New York, Springer.
 
Vétek G., Timus A., Chubinishvili M., Avagyan G., Torchan V., Hajdú Zs., Veres A., Nersisyan A. (2017): Integrated pest management of major pests and diseases in eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Budapest, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
 
Zach P. (1991): Use of photoeclectors in the study of cambio- and xylophagous beetles. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 23: 34–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01906102
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences