Differentiation of the disease caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides and girth scab on sugar beet roots – a review

https://doi.org/10.17221/152/2015-PPSCitation:Moliszewska E.B. (2017): Differentiation of the disease caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides and girth scab on sugar beet roots – a review. Plant Protect. Sci., 53: 71-77.
download PDF

Severe symptoms of root rot on sugar beet have been observed in Poland and Germany since 2001. The symptom classification suggested girth scab as it was mistakenly classified on the basis of current classification, e.g. in LIZ. However, the cause of the disease was Aphanomyces cochlioides infection, not Streptomyces spp. According to these findings we cannot call the symptoms caused by A. cochlioides as ‘girth scab’. The typical scab (girth scab) symptoms can be promoted by A. cochlioides infections. In many cases, A. cochlioides developed at the beginning of the season, during the seedling stage. Its further development was due to rainfall and was not routinely recognised in disease-changed tissues if in the middle of the summer the rainfall level was reduced. According to the described findings, renewed description and differentiation of the girth scab symptoms caused by Streptomyces spp. and root rot caused by A. cochlioides on sugar beet roots are suggested. Typical symptoms of the disease caused by A. cochlioides occur mainly on the upper part of the root but can also occur on its lower part, if weather conditions are favourable for the pathogen. The coexistence of A. cochlioides and Pythium spp. in the same niches is also possible. Currently the illustrations showing these symptoms are included in the ‘girth scab’ descriptions.

References:
Asher M. (1992): Root rots – the sting in the tail. British Sugar Beet Review, 60 (2): 26–29.
 
Beale Julie W., Windels Carol E., Kinkel Linda L. (2002): Spatial Distribution of Aphanomyces cochlioides and Root Rot in Sugar Beet Fields. Plant Disease, 86, 547-551  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.5.547
 
Benada J., Špaček J., Šedivy J. (1984): Atlas chorób i szkodników buraka. Warszawa, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne.
 
Chołuj Danuta, Moliszewska Ewa B. (2012): The influence of Aphanomyces cochlioides on selected physiological processes in sugar beet leaves and yield parameters. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 132, 59-70  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-011-9848-5
 
Dyer A.T., Szabo L.J., Windels C.E. (2004): Characterization and spatial distribution of Aphanomyces in sugarbeet fields. Journal of Sugar Beet Reseach, 41(1 & 2): 1–16.
 
Francis S. (2003): A tale of two seedling diseases: the biology of Pythium damping-off and Aphanomyces blackleg. British Sugar Beet Review, 71(1): 38–40.
 
Fröhlich K., Smalla K. (2014): Characterisation of microbial communities and detection of the putative causal agents in lesions of sugar beet with symptoms of girth scab. Nachwuchswissenschaftlerforum/Young Scientists Meeting 2014. Berichte aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut, 177: 23.
 
Harveson R. M. (): Identifying and Distinguishing Seedling and Root Rot Diseases of Sugar Beets. Plant Health Progress, , -  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2006-0915-01-DG
 
Harveson R. M., Hein G. L., Smith J. A., Wilson R. G., Yonts C. D. (2002): An Integrated Approach to Cultivar Evaluation and Selection for Imporving Suger Beet Profitability: A Successful Case Study for the Central High Plains. Plant Disease, 86, 192-204  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.3.192
 
Harveson R.M., Hanson L.E., Hein  G.L. (eds) (2009): Compendium of Beet Diseases and Pests. 2nd Ed. St. Paul, APS Press.
 
Hinfner K., Homonnay F. (1966): Atlas chorób i szkodników buraka cukrowego. Warszawa, PWRiL.
 
Hovi L., Nihlgard M. (2005): Detection and prediction of Aphanomyces cochlioides in field. In: Abstract of Papers of 68th IIRB Congress, June 20–23, 2005, Maastricht, the Nederland.
 
Knudsen Inge M.B, Larsen Karen M, Jensen Dan Funck, Hockenhull John (2002): Potential suppressiveness of different field soils to Pythium damping-off of sugar beet. Applied Soil Ecology, 21, 119-129  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00086-0
 
LIZ (2005): Burak cukrowy choroby i uszkodzenia, szybkie rozpoznanie. 1st Ed. Poznań-Elsdorf, Landwirtschaftlicher Informationsdienst Zuckerrübe Koordinationsstelle. Available at www.liz-online.de (accessed Oct 15, 2015).
 
Märländer B., Hoffmann C., Koch H.-J., Ladewig E., Merkes R., Petersen J., Stockfisch N. (2003): Environmental situation and yield performance of the sugar beet crop in Germany: heading for sustainable development. Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science, 189: 201–226.
 
Moliszewska E.B. (2000): The influence of some herbicides on species variation of fungi associated with rotted tissue of sugar beet seedlings. Phytopathologia Polonica, 20: 85–95.
 
Moliszewska E.B. (2008a): Can selected soil features and soil fungal community influence the occurrence of sugar beet seedling damping-off? Phytopathologia Polonica, 50: 51–67.
 
Moliszewska E.B. (2008b): Occurence of Pythium spp. and Aphanomyces cochlioides in diseased sugar beet root tissues. Phytopathologia Polonica, 50: 69–79.
 
Moliszewska E. (2009): Etiologia wybranych chorób buraka cukrowego. Studia i Monografie, Nr. 412. Opole, Uniwersytet Opolski.
 
Moliszewska E.B. (2011): Aspects of decrease of some soil pathogens of sugar beet by Bacillus subtilis and Streptomycetes. Proceedings of ECOPole, 5: 401–406.
 
Moliszewska Ewa B., Pisarek Izabella (2004): Activity of bacteria strains originaited from sewage sludge against some soil fungi. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 50, 807-814  https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2004.10408540
 
Moliszewska E.B., Piszczek J. (2008): Occurrence of sugar beet root rot (Aphanomyces cochlioides) in Poland. Phytopathologia Polonica, 47: 23–31.
 
Nechwatal Jan, Leiminger Jürgen, Poschenrieder Georg, Zellner Michael (2012): Evidence for the involvement of Aphanomyces cochlioides and Pythium spp. in ‘girth scab’ disease of sugar beet in Bavaria. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 119, 85-91  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03356425
 
PAYNE P. A., ASHER M. J. C., KERSHAW C. D. (1994): The incidence of Pythium spp. and Aphanomyces cochlioides associated with the sugar-beet growing soils of Britain. Plant Pathology, 43, 300-308  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.1994.tb02688.x
 
Pearsson L., Olsson A. (2005): Relation between occurrence of Aphanomyces cochlioides and soil factors. In: Abstract of Papers of 68th IIRB Congress, Jun 20–23, 2005, Maastricht, the Nederland.
 
Petersen Jan, Schlinker Gero (2003): Das Ph�nomen G�rtelschorf des Jahres 2002 an Zuckerr�ben?Auswirkungen und m�gliche Ursachen. Gesunde Pflanzen, 55, 228-235  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10343-003-0008-5
 
Piszczek J. (2002): Aphanomyces cochlioides – patogen porażający wszystkie fazy rozwojowe buraka cukrowego. Ochrona Roślin, 8: 21–22.
 
Piszczek J. (2004): Occurrence of root rot of sugar beet cultivars. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 44: 341–345.
 
Schaad N.W., Jones J.B., Chun W. (eds) (2001): Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. 3rd Ed. St. Paul, APS Press.
 
Szymczak-Nowak J. (1987): Przyczyny wzrostu szkodliwości Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechsler na plantacjach buraka cukrowego. [PhD Dissertation.] Bydgoszcz, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute (IHAR).
 
Williams G.E., Asher M.J.C. (1996): Selection of rhizobacteria for the control of Pythium ultimum and Aphanomyces cochlioides on sugar-beet seedlings. Crop Protection, 15, 479-486  https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(96)00014-2
 
Windels C. E. (): Aphanomyces Root Rot on Sugar Beet. Plant Health Progress, , -  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2000-0720-01-DG
 
Windels C.E., Lamey H.A. (1998): Identification and Control of Seedling Diseases, Root Rot, and Rhizomania on Sugarbeet. NDSU Extension Service, PP-1142, BU-7192-S.
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti