Assessment of the influence of fertilisation and environmental conditions on maize health
Field experiments showed the occurrence of such agrophages as the frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) and the European maize borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.). Identified diseases included fusariosis (Fusarium ssp.) and maize smut (Ustilago maydis Corda). The incidence of the frit fly was influenced by weather conditions, mainly temperature, in the period from sowing to the BBCH 15–16 phase. Moderate temperature conditions contributed to the occurrence of the pest. The significantly highest percentage of plants damaged by larvae of this pest was recorded on maize fertilised only with potassium (K) and phosphorus with potassium (PK). In turn, the lowest percentage of plants damaged by frit fly larvae was recorded for maize fertilised with nitrogen and potassium (NK). The percentage of plants damaged by the European maize borer was influenced by temperature and humidity conditions in individual years of the study. The highest percentage of plants damaged by larvae of the pest was found in the vegetation season characterised by the highest amount of rainfall with the lowest mean daily air temperature. The presence of potassium in a given fertiliser combination, the application of manure or combined application of manure and mineral fertilisation resulted in an enhanced resistance of maize plants to Fusarium ssp. fungi. The significantly greatest infestation of maize plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis Corda was recorded in the treatment in which only nitrogen was applied. In turn, the lowest percentage of plants with symptoms of this disease was recorded in the treatment with the application of potassium alone and in the application of potassium together with phosphorus.
Ajanga S., Hillocks R.J. (2000): Maize cob rot in Kenya and its association with stalk borer damage. Crop Protection, 19, 297-300 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00020-X
Amtmann Anna, Troufflard Stephanie, Armengaud Patrick (2008): The effect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 133, 682-691 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2008.01075.x
Bartos M., Michalski T. (2006): Intensity of feeding symptoms of European corn borer on maize depending on some agrotechnical factors. Progress in Plant Protection/Postępy w Ochronie Roślin, 46 (1): 284–290.
Bereś P.K. (2011): Usefulness of selected seed dressing insecticides for integrated maize (Zea mays L.) protection against frit fly (Oscinella frit L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonarum, Agricultura, 10 (4): 15–23.
Boateng S.A., Zickermann J., Kornahrens M. (2006): Poultry manure effect on growth and yield of maize. West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology, 9: 12–18.
Bocianowski Jan, Szulc Piotr, Tratwal Anna, Nowosad Kamila, Piesik Dariusz (2016): The influence of potassium to mineral fertilizers on the maize health. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15, 1286-1292 https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(15)61194-7
Dorn Brigitte, Forrer Hans-Rudolf, Schürch Stéphanie, Vogelgsang Susanne (2009): Fusarium species complex on maize in Switzerland: occurrence, prevalence, impact and mycotoxins in commercial hybrids under natural infection. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125, 51-61 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-009-9457-8
Gromadzka K., Lenc L., Sadowski C., Baturo-Ciesniewska A., Chełkowski J., Goliński P., Bocianowski J. (2012): Effects of fungicidal protection programs on the development of fusarium head blight and the accumulation of mycotoxins in winter wheat. Cereal Research Communications, 40, 518-531 https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.40.2012.0019
Grzebisz W., Barłóg P., Waszak M., Łukowiak R. (2007): Nutritional homeostasis and plant crops resistance to biotic stresses. Fragmenta Agronomica, 3 (95): 136–143.
Imas P., Magen H. (2000): Potash Facts in Brief. Bern-Haryana, International Potash Institute.
Kruczek A. (1997): Influence of meteorological factors and nitrogen fertilisation on damage by diseases and insects and lodging of maize (Zea mays L.). Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu, CCXCV, 50: 63–71.
Marschner H. (1986): Mineral Nutrition in Higher Plants. Part II. Relationship between Mineral Nutrition and Plant Diseases and Pests. London, Academic Press: 369–390.
Marschner H. (1995): Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Ed. London, Academic Press.
Mesterházy Ákos, Lemmens Marc, Reid Lana M. (2012): Breeding for resistance to ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. in maize - a review. Plant Breeding, 131, 1-19 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2011.01936.x
Perrenoud S. (1990): Potassium and Plant Health. IPI Research Topics 3. 2nd Ed. Bern, International Potash Institute.
Scauflaire Jonathan, Mahieu Olivier, Louvieaux Julien, Foucart Guy, Renard Fabien, Munaut Françoise (2011): Biodiversity of Fusarium species in ears and stalks of maize plants in Belgium. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 131, 59-66 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-011-9787-1
Soil Survey Staff (1999): Soil Taxonomy. A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. 2nd Ed. USDA-NRCS, Agriculture Handbook No. 436. Washington DC, U.S. Goverment Printing Office. Availabe at www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs142p2_051232.pdf
Sprague G.F., Dudley J.W. (1988): Corn and Corn Improvement. Madision, The American Society of Agronomy and Academic Press.
Szulc P., Bocianowski J., Rybus-Zając M. (2012): Response of nitrogen nutritional indices maize leaves to different mineral-organic fertilisation. Maydica, 57: 260–265
World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2014): IUSS Working Group WRB. World Soil Resources Reports 106. Rome, FAO.