Assessment of the influence of fertilisation and environmental conditions on maize health

https://doi.org/10.17221/22/2017-PPSCitation:Szulc P., Bocianowski J., Nowosad K., Michalski T., Waligóra H., olejarski P. (2018): Assessment of the influence of fertilisation and environmental conditions on maize health. Plant Protect. Sci., 54: 174-182.
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Field experiments showed the occurrence of such agrophages as the frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) and the European maize borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.). Identified diseases included fusariosis (Fusarium ssp.) and maize smut (Ustilago maydis Corda). The incidence of the frit fly was influenced by weather conditions, mainly temperature, in the period from sowing to the BBCH 15–16 phase. Moderate temperature conditions contributed to the occurrence of the pest. The significantly highest percentage of plants damaged by larvae of this pest was recorded on maize fertilised only with potassium (K) and phosphorus with potassium (PK). In turn, the lowest percentage of plants damaged by frit fly larvae was recorded for maize fertilised with nitrogen and potassium (NK). The percentage of plants damaged by the European maize borer was influenced by temperature and humidity conditions in individual years of the study. The highest percentage of plants damaged by larvae of the pest was found in the vegetation season characterised by the highest amount of rainfall with the lowest mean daily air temperature. The presence of potassium in a given fertiliser combination, the application of manure or combined application of manure and mineral fertilisation resulted in an enhanced resistance of maize plants to Fusarium ssp. fungi. The significantly greatest infestation of maize plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis Corda was recorded in the treatment in which only nitrogen was applied. In turn, the lowest percentage of plants with symptoms of this disease was recorded in the treatment with the application of potassium alone and in the application of potassium together with phosphorus.

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