Management strategies for western flower thrips in vegetable greenhouses in Iran: a review

https://doi.org/10.17221/2/2015-PPSCitation:Gholam Z., Sadeghi A. (2016): Management strategies for western flower thrips in vegetable greenhouses in Iran: a review. Plant Protect. Sci., 52: 87-98.
download PDF
Chemical, biological, cultural, and mechanical controls are the main strategies of the Integrated Pest Management program for F. occidentalis. The insecticides play an important role in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), management. Spinosad, pyridalyl, and botanical insecticides such as oxymatrine and azadirachtin are new and effective insecticides for the control of F. occidentalis. The best control finally is possible when all of the strategies are used together. Awareness on integrated pest management strategies can improve the integrated pest management strategies.
References:
Adiroubane D., Raghuraman K. (2008): Plant products and microbial formulation in the management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee.). Journal of Biopesticides, 1: 124–129.
 
Akdeniz Duygu, Özmen Ali (2011): Antimitotic effects of the biopesticide oxymatrine. Caryologia, 64, 117-120  https://doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2011.10589771
 
Ansari M. A., Brownbridge M., Shah F. A., Butt T. M. (2008): Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against soil-dwelling life stages of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in plant-growing media. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 127, 80-87  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2008.00674.x
 
Asghari Tabari B., Sheikhi Gorjan A., Shojaei M., Rajabi M.Z., Yousefi Porshekoh A. (2009): Susceptibility of three developmental stages of Liriomyza sativa Blanchard (Dip: Agromyzidae) to biorational insecticides in vitro conditions. Journal of Entomological Research, 1: 23– 4.
 
Bakkali F., Averbeck S., Averbeck D., Idaomar M. (2008): Biological effects of essential oils – A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 446-475  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106
 
Bielza Pablo (2008): Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Pest Management Science, 64, 1131-1138  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1620
 
Bielza Pablo, Quinto Vicente, Contreras Josefina, Torné María, Martín Alberto, Espinosa Pedro J (2007): Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips,Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain. Pest Management Science, 63, 682-687  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1388
 
Bonsignore Carmelo, Vacante Vincenzo (2012): Influences of Botanical Pesticides and Biological Agents on Orius Laevigatus - Frankliniella Occidentalis Dynamics Under Greenhouse Conditions. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52, -  https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0003-x
 
Br⊘dsgaard H. F., Hansen L. Stengaard (1992): Effect of Amblyseius cucumeris and Amblyseius barkeri as biological control agents of thrips tabaci on glasshouse cucumbers. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 2, 215-223  https://doi.org/10.1080/09583159209355235
 
Broughton Sonya, Herron Grant A (2007): Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) chemical control: insecticide efficacy associated with the three consecutive spray strategy. Australian Journal of Entomology, 46, 140-145  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.2007.00568.x
 
Broughton S., Herron G. A. (2009): Potential New Insecticides for the Control of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Sweet Pepper, Tomato, and Lettuce. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102, 646-651  https://doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0224
 
Brownbridge M., Buitenhuis R., Murphy G., Waite M., Scott-Dupree C. (2013): Banker plants, trap crops and other bioprotection developments in Canadian greenhouse floriculture. In: Proceedings 4th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, March 4–8, 2013, Pucón, Chile: 133–136.
 
Buitenhuis R., Shipp J. L. (2005): Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematode <I>Steinernema feltiae</I> (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as Influenced by <I>Frankliniella occidentalis</I> (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Developmental Stage and Host Plant Stage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98, 1480-1485  https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-98.5.1480
 
Buitenhuis R., Shipp J. L. (2006): Factors Influencing the Use of Trap Plants for the Control of <I>Frankliniella occidentalis</I> (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Greenhouse Potted Chrysanthemum. Environmental Entomology, 35, 1411-1416  https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X(2006)35[1411:FITUOT]2.0.CO;2
 
Bustillo Pardey A.E. (2009): Evaluation chemical and biological insecticides to control Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in asparagus crops. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 35: 12– 17. (in Spanisch)
 
Carrière Yves (2003): Haplodiploidy, Sex, and the Evolution of Pesticide Resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 1626-1640  https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-96.6.1626
 
Charleston Deidre S., Kfir Rami, Dicke Marcel, Vet Louise E.M. (2005): Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth. Biological Control, 33, 131-142  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.02.007
 
Chau Amanda, Heinz Kevin M., Davies Fred T. (2005): Influences of fertilization on population abundance, distribution, and control of Frankliniella occidentalis on chrysanthemum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 117, 27-39  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2005.00326.x
 
Choi Yong-Seok, Whang In-Su, Park Deog-Kee, Lee Jun-Seok, Ham Eun-Hye (2013): Control Effects of Frankliniella occidentalis by using Trap Plants and Orius laevigatus in Chrysanthemum PVC House. The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, 17, 440-447  https://doi.org/10.7585/kjps.2013.17.4.440
 
Cloyd R.A. (2009): Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) management on ornamental crops grown in greenhouses: have we reached an impasse? Pest Technology, 3: 1–9.
 
Coll Moshe, Shakya Sulochana, Shouster Inbar, Nenner Yaakov, Steinberg Shimon (2007): Decision-making tools for Frankliniella occidentalis management in strawberry: consideration of target markets. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 122, 59-67  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2006.00488.x
 
Contreras J., Moreno D., Hernández M.D., Bielza P., Lacasa A. (2001): PRELIMINARY STUDY ON INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS (PERGANDE) (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) IN SWEET PEPPER CROPS IN CAMPO DE CARTAGENA, S.E OF SPAIN. Acta Horticulturae, , 745-752  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.559.110
 
Cook D. F., Dadour I. R., Bailey W. J. (2002): Addition of alarm pheromone to insecticides and the possible improvement of the control of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 48, 287-290  https://doi.org/10.1080/09670870210149826
 
Cook Samantha M., Khan Zeyaur R., Pickett John A. (2007): The Use of Push-Pull Strategies in Integrated Pest Management. Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 375-400  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.52.110405.091407
 
Covaci A.D., Oltean I., Pop A. (2012): Evaluation of pheromone Lure as mass-trapping tools for western flower thrips. Bulletin UASVM Agriculture, 69: 333–334.
 
Demirozer Ozan, Tyler-Julian Kara, Funderburk Joe, Leppla Norm, Reitz Stuart (2012): Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida. Pest Management Science, 68, 1537-1545  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3389
 
Ebssa L, Borgemeister C, Berndt O, Poehling H.-M (2001): Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes against Soil-Dwelling Life Stages of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 78, 119-127  https://doi.org/10.1006/jipa.2001.5051
 
Eger J. E., Stavisky J., Funderburk J. E. (1998): Comparative Toxicity of Spinosad to Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), with Notes on a Bioassay Technique. The Florida Entomologist, 81, 547-  https://doi.org/10.2307/3495955
 
El-Mageed A.E.M.A., Shalaby S.E.M. (2011): Toxicity and biochemical impacts of some new insecticide mixtures on cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Plant Protection Science, 47: 166–175.
 
El-Sayed S., Shalaby M., El-Sayed A., El-Mageed M.A. (2010): Biochemical targets affected by subacute doses of new pesticide mixtures tested on albino rats. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50: 513– 519.
 
Eshrati M., Asgari S., Moeeni Naghade N., Zamani A.A., Sheikhi Garjan A. (2014): Demography of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), on greenhouse cucumber, Veola variety. In: Proceedings 21th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Aug 23–26, 2014, Urmia University. Urmia, Iran. Vol. I. Pests.
 
(2002): Normes OEPP. EPPO Standards. Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests. Protocoles de diagnostic pour les organismes reglementes. EPPO Bulletin, 32, 241-243  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00585.x
 
Funderburk Joe, Stavisky Julianne, Olson Steve (2000): Predation of <I>Frankliniella occidentalis</I> (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Field Peppers by <I>Orius insidiosus</I> (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Environmental Entomology, 29, 376-382  https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X(2000)029[0376:POFOTT]2.0.CO;2
 
Garzo E.I., Collar J.L., Muniz M., Fereres A. (2000): Laboratory studies on the efficacy of fipronil to control Frankliniella occidentalis pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, 15: 57–65.
 
Gholami Z. (2012): Evaluation of susceptibility to synthetic and botanical insecticides in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). [Master Dissertation.] Sanandaj, University of Kurdistan.
 
Gillespie D. R. (1989): Biological control of thrips [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] on greenhouse cucumber byAmblyseius cucumeris. Entomophaga, 34, 185-192  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02372667
 
Hamilton James G. C., Hall David R., Kirk William D. J. (2005): Identification of a Male-produced Aggregation Pheromone in the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31, 1369-1379  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-005-1351-z
 
HELYER NEIL L., BROBYN PATRICIA J. (1992): Chemical control of Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande). Annals of Applied Biology, 121, 219-231  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1992.tb03434.x
 
Helyer Neil L., Brobyn Patricia J., Richardson Paul N., Edmondson Rodney N. (1995): Control of Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) pupae in compost. Annals of Applied Biology, 127, 405-412  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1995.tb07600.x
 
Herron GA, Cook DF (2002): Initial verification of the resistance management strategy for Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 41, 187-191  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6055.2002.00275.x
 
Herron Grant A, James Tanya M (2005): Monitoring insecticide resistance in Australian Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) detects fipronil and spinosad resistance. Australian Journal of Entomology, 44, 299-303  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.2005.00478.x
 
HERRON GRANT A., ROPHAIL JEANETTE, GULLICK GRAEME C. (1996): Laboratory-Based, Insecticide Efficacy Studies on Field-Collected Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Implications for its Management in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 35, 161-164  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1996.tb01382.x
 
Hollingsworth Robert G., Sewake Kelvin T., Armstrong John W. (2002): Scouting Methods for Detection of Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Dendrobium Orchids in Hawaii. Environmental Entomology, 31, 523-532  https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-31.3.523
 
Houten Yvonne M., Stratum Pam, Bruin Jan, Veerman Alfred (1995): Selection for non-diapause in Amblyseius cucumeris and Amblyseius barkeri and exploration of the effectiveness of selected strains for thrips control. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 77, 289-295  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1995.tb02326.x
 
Isayama S., Saito S., Kuroda K., Umeda K., Kasamatsu K. (2005): Pyridalyl, a novel insecticide: Potency and insecticidal selectivity. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 58, 226-233  https://doi.org/10.1002/arch.20045
 
Isman Murray B. (2006): BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES, DETERRENTS, AND REPELLENTS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE AND AN INCREASINGLY REGULATED WORLD. Annual Review of Entomology, 51, 45-66  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.151146
 
Jalili Moghadam M., Azmayesh Fard P. (2004): Thrips of ornamental plants in Tehran and Mahallat. In: Proceedings 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Aug 28–Sept 1, 2004, University of Tabriz. Tabriz, Iran. Vol. I. Pests.
 
Jensen S.E. (2000): Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 5: 131–146. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009600426262
 
Jones Terri, Scott-Dupree Cynthia, Harris Ron, Shipp Les, Harris Brenda (2005): The efficacy of spinosad against the western flower thrips,Frankliniella occidentalis, and its impact on associated biological control agents on greenhouse cucumbers in southern Ontario. Pest Management Science, 61, 179-185  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.939
 
Kay Iain R, Herron Grant A (2010): Evaluation of existing and new insecticides including spirotetramat and pyridalyl to control Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peppers in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology, 49, 175-181  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.2010.00751.x
 
Kiani L. (2010): The effect of integrated pest management of three major pests on organic strawberry production in greenhouse conditions. [Master Dissertation.] Gorgan, University of Gorgan.
 
Kirk William D. J., Terry L. Irene (2003): The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 5, 301-310  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-9563.2003.00192.x
 
KISHA JENNIFER S. A. (1977): Cultural and insecticidal control of Thrips tabaci on onions in the Sudan. Annals of Applied Biology, 86, 219-228  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1977.tb01835.x
 
Kontsedalov S., Weintraub P. G., Horowitz A. R., Ishaaya I. (1998): Effects of Insecticides on Immature and Adult Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Israel. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91, 1067-1071  https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/91.5.1067
 
Kupi N. (2010). Evaluation the effect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in laboratory conditions. [Master Dissertation.] Tehran, Trabiyat Modarres University.
 
Liu Lijun, Alam Mohammad Sayed, Hirata Koichi, Matsuda Kazuhiko, Ozoe Yoshihisa (2008): Actions of quinolizidine alkaloids on Periplaneta americana nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Pest Management Science, 64, 1222-1228  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1622
 
Medo I., Marcic D. (2013): The effects of Kingbo biopesticide on Tetranychus urticae Koch female adults. Pesticides and Phytomedicine (Belgrade), 28: 195–202.
 
Morgan E. David (2009): Azadirachtin, a scientific gold mine. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 17, 4096-4105  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2008.11.081
 
Morishita Masahiko (2001): Toxicity of some insecticides to larvae of Flankliniella occidentalis(Pergande)(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) evaluated by the petri dish-spraying tower method.. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36, 137-141  https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2001.137
 
Moriya Koko, Hirakura Setsuko, Kobayashi Jun, Ozoe Yoshihisa, Saito Shigeru, Utsumi Toshihiko (2008): Pyridalyl inhibits cellular protein synthesis in insect, but not mammalian, cell lines. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 69, 22-31  https://doi.org/10.1002/arch.20252
 
Nderitu J., Mwangi F., Nyamasyo G., Kasina M. (2010): Utilization of synthetic and botanical insecticides to manage thrips (Thysan: Thrip.) on snap beans (Fabaceae) in Kenya. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production, 5: 1–4.
 
Palmer J.M., Mound L.A., Heaume G.J. (1989): CIE Guides to Insects of Importance to Man, 2 Thysanoptera. Wallingford, CAB International.
 
Pearsall I. A. (2002): Daily flight activity of the western flower thrips (Thysan., Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Applied Entomology, 126, 293-302  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00657.x
 
Powell Gerard F., Ward Deborah A., Prescott Mark C., Spiller David G., White Michael R.H., Turner Phillip C., Earley Fergus G.P., Phillips Janet, Rees Huw H. (2011): The molecular action of the novel insecticide, Pyridalyl. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41, 459-469  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2011.03.007
 
Premachandra W.T.S.D., Borgemeister C., Berndt O., Ehlers R.U., Poehling H.M. (2003): Combined releases of entomopathogenic nematodes and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer to control soil-dwelling stages of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. BioControl, 48: 529–541. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025703512113
 
Rabea Entsar I., Nasr Hoda M., Badawy Mohamed E. I. (2010): Toxic Effect and Biochemical Study of Chlorfluazuron, Oxymatrine, and Spinosad on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 58, 722-732  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-009-9403-y
 
Reitz S.R. (2002a): Biology and ecology of the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): the making of a pest. Florida Entomologist, 92: 7–13.
 
Reitz S.R. (2002b): Seasonal and within-plant distribution of Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in north florida tomatoes. Florida Entomologist, 85: 431–439.
 
Reitz Stuart R., Yearby Erika L., Funderburk Joseph E., Stavisky Julianne, Momol M. Timurp, Olson Steve M. (2003): Integrated Management Tactics for <I>Frankliniella</I> Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Field-Grown Pepper. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 1201-1214  https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-96.4.1201
 
Robb K.L., Parrella M.P., Newman J.P. (1988): The biology and control of western flower thrips. Ohio Florists Association Bulletin, 699: 2–5.
 
Saito Shigeru, Sakamoto Noriyasu, Umeda Kimitoshi (2005): Effects of Pyridalyl, a Novel Insecticidal Agent, on Cultured Sf9 Cells. Journal of Pesticide Science, 30, 17-21  https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.30.17
 
Saito Shigeru, Yoshioka Takafumi, Umeda Kimitoshi (2006): Ultrastructural effects of pyridalyl, an insecticidal agent, on epidermal cells of Spodoptera litura larvae and cultured insect cells Sf9. Journal of Pesticide Science, 31, 335-338  https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.31.335
 
Sakamoto Noriyasu, Saito Shigeru, Hirose Taro, Suzuki Masaya, Matsuo Sanshiro, Izumi Keiichi, Nagatomi Toshio, Ikegami Hiroshi, Umeda Kimitoshi, Tsushima Kazunori, Matsuo Noritada (2004): The discovery of pyridalyl: a novel insecticidal agent for controlling lepidopterous pests. Pest Management Science, 60, 25-34  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.788
 
Navas S. V. E., Funderburk J. E., Beshear R. J., Olson S. M., Mack T. P. (1991): Seasonal Patterns of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Tomato Flowers. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84, 1818-1822  https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/84.6.1818
 
Sampson Clare, Kirk William D. J., Rodriguez-Saona Cesar (2013): Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry. PLoS ONE, 8, e80787-  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080787
 
Sarmiento F. (2014): Integrated pest management of western flower thrips. [PhD Dissertation.] Leiden University, Leiden.
 
Schmutterer H (1990): Properties and Potential of Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree, Azadirachta Indica. Annual Review of Entomology, 35, 271-297  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.35.010190.001415
 
Seaton K. A., Cook D. F., Hardie D. C. (1997): The effectiveness of a range of insecticides against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on cut flowers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 48, 781-  https://doi.org/10.1071/A96081
 
Sheikhi Garjan A., Najafi G., Abbasi S., Saber F., Rashid M. (2012): The Pesticide Guide of Iran. Teheran, Ketab Paytakht Publication. (in Persian)
 
Shipp J. L., Zhang Y. (1999): Using Greenhouse Microclimate to Improve the Efficacy of Insecticide Application for Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92, 201-206  https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/92.1.201
 
Stavisky Julianne, Funderburk Joe, Brodbeck Brent V., Olson Steve M., Andersen Peter C. (2002): Population Dynamics of <I>Frankliniella</I> spp. and Tomato Spotted Wilt Incidence as Influenced by Cultural Management Tactics in Tomato. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95, 1216-1221  https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-95.6.1216
 
Teerling C. R., Pierce H. D., Borden J. H., Gillespie D. R. (1993): Identification and bioactivity of alarm pheromone in the western flower thrips,Frankliniella occidentalis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19, 681-697  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00985001
 
Tenbrink V.L., Hara A.H., Hata T.Y., Hu B.K.S., Kaneko R. (1998): The Berlese Funnel, a Tool for Monitoring Thrips on Orchids. Manoa, CTAHR Publication IP-3.
 
Terry L.I., Alston D.G. (2011): Western Flower Thips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)]. Available at http://utahpests.usu.edu/ipm/htm/fruits/fruit-insect-disease/western-flower-thrips (accessed Oct 2011).
 
PCT (2008): Pesticidal formulation containing oxymatrine or matrine. The Patent Cooperation Treaty. OEPP/EPPO, 32: 241–243.
 
Thoeming G., Borgemeister C., Sétamou M., Poehling H.-M. (2003): Systemic Effects of Neem on Western Flower Thrips, <I>Frankliniella occidentalis</I> (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 817-825  https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-96.3.817
 
Thoeming G., Poehling H.M. (2006a): Integrating soil-applied Azadirachtin with Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari: Laelapidae) for the management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Environmental Entomology, 35: 746–756.
 
Thoeming G., Draeger G., Poehling H.M. (2006b): Soil application of azadirachtin and 3-trioglo-azadirachtol to control of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): translocation and persistence in bean plants. Pest Management Science, 62: 759–767.
 
Vargas M.R., Ubillo A. (2005): Susceptibility of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to insecticides in the central region of Chile. Agricultra Técnica, 65: 437–441.
 
van de Wetering F., van der Hoek M., Goldbach R., Mollema C., Peters D. (1999): Variation in tospovirus transmission between populations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 89, -  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485399000735
 
Yang Xue-yun, Zhao Bo-guang (2006): Antifungal activities of matrine and oxymatrine and their synergetic effects with chlorthalonil. Journal of Forestry Research, 17, 323-325  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-006-0074-5
 
Zhang Shu-Yun, Kono Satoshi, Murai Tamotsu, Miyata Tadashi (2008): Mechanisms of resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrip, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Insect Science, 15, 125-132  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2008.00192.x
 
Zhang Yanxuan, Zhang Zhi-Qiang, Lin Jianzhen, Ji Jie (2013): Potential of Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a biocontrol agent against <i>Schizotetranychus nanjingensis</i> (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Fujian, China. Systematic and Acarology Acarology Special Publications, 4, -  https://doi.org/10.11158/saasp.4.1.11
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti