Effect of the mycoflora of ergot (Claviceps purpurea)sclerotia on their viability
M. Ondřej, B. Cagaš, E. Ondráčkováhttps://doi.org/10.17221/48/2009-PPSCitation:Ondřej M., Cagaš B., Ondráčková E. (2010): Effect of the mycoflora of ergot (Claviceps purpurea)sclerotia on their viability. Plant Protect. Sci., 46: 66-71.
Twenty fungal species were isolated from sclerotia of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) originating from rye. In in vitro tests with the anamorphic stage of ergot (known as Sphacelia segetum) high mycoparasitic activity was exhibited only by two of them – Clonostachys rosea and Trichoderma harzianum, moderate mycoparasitic activity was detected in Ulocladium sp., Clonostachys catenulata, Trichoderma hamatum, and Trichothecium roseum. In in vitro tests of mycoparasitic activity with sclerotia of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum their rapid and total destruction was brought about only by the fungi Clonostachys rosea and Trichoderma harzianum. The viability of overwintering ergot sclerotia in the soil was influenced by their placement, age, depth of placement and treatment with a conidial suspension of the fungus Clonostachys rosea. The highest viability values were reported in fresh one-year-old sclerotia. In two-year-old sclerotia their viability was reduced and their sensitivity to microbial activity was higher. The sclerotia aged 3 years or more did not germinate and were all microbiologically degraded in the soil. More than 80% of degradation of sclerotia which were 1 to 2 years old was caused by the fungus Clonostachys rosea. The degradation of sclerotia aged 3 to 4 years was brought about by bacteria, soil edafauna (mites, nematodes) and fungi of the genera Trichoderma, Fusarium, Clonostachys, etc.Keywords:
sclerotia; Claviceps purpurea; mycoflora of sclerotia; mycoparasitic degradation of sclerotia; Clonostachys rosea