Recent approaches for controlling downy mildew of cucumber under greenhouse conditions
A. Mohamed, A. Hamza, A. Derbalahhttps://doi.org/10.17221/63/2015-PPSCitation:Mohamed A., Hamza A., Derbalah A. (2016): Recent approaches for controlling downy mildew of cucumber under greenhouse conditions. Plant Protect. Sci., 52: 1-9.
The efficacy of biocontrol agents (effective microorganisms (EMs1), Bacillus subtilus, and Bacillus pumilus), zinc oxide nanoparticles, castor and clove oils, as well as of a recommended fungicide (famoxadone + cymoxanil) utilised during two growing seasons under greenhouse conditions against downy mildew of cucumber were evaluated. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical components of plant origin oils (castor and clove). The effect of these treatments on some biochemical, growth, and yield characters of cucumber was also investigated. Famoxadone + cymoxanil was the most effective treatment in both test seasons, followed by clove oil, zinc oxide, EMs1, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilus, and castor oil. The results showed a significant effect of all the treatments on some biochemical (chlorophyll content, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase) as well as growth and yield characters (plant height, fruit number per plant, and fruit yield) of the cucumber plants relative to control.Keywords:plant pathogen; cucurbits; plant oils; nanoparticles; bioagentsReferences:
Agoramoorthy G., Chandrasekaran M., Venkatesalu V., Hsu M.J. (2007): Antibacterial and antifungal activities of fatty acid methyl esters of the blind-your-eye mangrove from India. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 38, 739-742 https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000400028Allam A. I. (1972): Sulfide Inhibition of Oxidases in Rice Roots. Phytopathology, 62, 634- https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-62-634Anonymous A. (2005): Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713. Biopesticide Registration Action Document 006479.Ayoola G.A., Coker H.A.B., Adesegun S.A., Adepoju-Bello A.A., Obaweya K., Ezennia E.C., Atangbayil, T.O. (2008): Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in South Western Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmacology Research, 7: 1019–1024.Bakkali F., Averbeck S., Averbeck D., Idaomar M. (2008): Biological effects of essential oils – A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 446-475 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106Bernhaedt E., Dodson J., Waterson J. (1988): Cucurbit Diseases: a Practical Guide for Seeds Men, Growers and Agricultural Advisors. Saticoy, Petoseed Co.Bharathi R, Vivekananthan R, Harish S, Ramanathan A, Samiyappan R (2004): Rhizobacteria-based bio-formulations for the management of fruit rot infection in chillies. Crop Protection, 23, 835-843 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2004.01.007Bowers John H., Locke James C. (2000): Effect of Botanical Extracts on the Population Density of Fusarium oxysporum in Soil and Control of Fusarium Wilt in the Greenhouse. Plant Disease, 84, 300-305 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.3.300Bowers John H., Locke James C. (2004): Effect of Formulated Plant Extracts and Oils on Population Density of Phytophthora nicotianae in Soil and Control of Phytophthora Blight in the Greenhouse. Plant Disease, 88, 11-16 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.1.11Brannen P M, Kenney D S (1997): Kodiak � --a successful biological-control product for suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens of cotton. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 19, 169-171 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jim.2900439Cardwell K.F., Schulthess F., Ndemah R., Ngoko Z. (1997): A systems approach to assess crop health and maize yield losses due to pests and diseases in Cameroon. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 65, 33-47 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(97)00056-XCHEN CHUNQUAN, BÉLANGER RICHARD R., BENHAMOU NICOLE, PAULITZ TIMOTHY C. (2000): Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Pythium aphanidermatum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 56, 13-23 https://doi.org/10.1006/pmpp.1999.0243Collins Douglas P, Jacobsen Barry J (2003): Optimizing a Bacillus subtilis isolate for biological control of sugar beet cercospora leaf spot. Biological Control, 26, 153-161 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1049-9644(02)00132-9Radja Commare R., Nandakumar R., Kandan A., Suresh S., Bharathi M., Raguchander T., Samiyappan R. (2002): Pseudomonas fluorescens based bio-formulation for the management of sheath blight disease and leaffolder insect in rice. Crop Protection, 21, 671-677 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(02)00020-0Cook R. James (1988): Biological control and holistic plant-health care in agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 3, 51- https://doi.org/10.1017/S0889189300002186Derbalah A.S., El-Moghazy S.M., Godah M.I. (2013): Alternatives methods to control of sugar beet leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola (Sacc). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 23: 2 247–254.Descalzo R.C., Rahe J.E., Mauza B. (1990): Comparative efficacy of induced resistance for selected diseases of greenhouse cucumber. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12, 16-24 https://doi.org/10.1080/07060669009501037Duncan David B. (1955): Multiple Range and Multiple F Tests. Biometrics, 11, 1- https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478Dunlop Robert W., Simon Andrew, Sivasithamparam Krishnapillai, Ghisalberti Emilio L. (1989): An Antibiotic from Trichoderma Koningii Active Against Soilborne Plant Pathogens. Journal of Natural Products, 52, 67-74 https://doi.org/10.1021/np50061a008Elad Y., Kapa A. (1999): Role of Trichoderma harzianum protease in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105: 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008753629207Falk S. P. (1996): Parasitism of Uncinula necator Cleistothecia by the Mycoparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis. Phytopathology, 85, 794- https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-85-794FANG M, CHEN J, XU X, YANG P, HILDEBRAND H (2006): Antibacterial activities of inorganic agents on six bacteria associated with oral infections by two susceptibility tests. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 27, 513-517 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.01.008Handelsman J. (): Biocontrol of Soilborne Plant Pathogens. THE PLANT CELL ONLINE, 8, 1855-1869 https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.8.10.1855Hansen M.A. (2000): Downy Mildew of Cucurbits. Publication Number 450-707. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Available at http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/plantdiseasefs/450-707/450-707.htmlHarman G. E. (2000): Myths and Dogmas of Biocontrol Changes in Perceptions Derived from Research on Trichoderma harzinum T-22. Plant Disease, 84, 377-393 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.4.377Howell C. R., Stipanovic R. D., Lumsden R. D. (1993): Antibiotic production by strains of Gliocladium virens and its relation to the biocontrol of cotton seedling diseases. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3, 435-441 https://doi.org/10.1080/09583159309355298Heydari A., Misaghi I. J. (2003): The role of rhizosphere bacteria in herbicide-mediated increase in Rhizoctonia solani-induced cotton seedling damping-off. Plant and Soil, 257, 391-396 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1027330215553Jin T., Sun D., Su J.Y., Zhang H., Sue H. (2009): Antimicrobial efficacy of zinc oxide quantum dots against L. monocytogenes, S. enteritidis, and E. coli O157:H7. Journal of Food Science, 74: M46–M52.Kendrick B. (1992): The Fifth Kingdom Mycologue Publications. Waterloo, Mycologue Publications.Kim K.J., Sung W.S., Moon S.K., Choi J.S., Kim J.G., Lee D.G. (2008a): Antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles on dermato-phytes. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 18: 1482–1484.Kumar Ashavani, Vemula Praveen Kumar, Ajayan Pulickel M., John George (): Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil. Nature Materials, 7, 236-241 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2099Khoshgoftarmanesh Amir Hossein, Schulin Rainer, Chaney Rufus L., Daneshbakhsh Bahareh, Afyuni Majid (2010): Micronutrient-efficient genotypes for crop yield and nutritional quality in sustainable agriculture. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 30, 83-107 https://doi.org/10.1051/agro/2009017Matta A., Diamond A.E. (1963): Symptoms of Fusarium wilt in relation to quantity of Fusarium and enzyme activity in tomato stems. Plant Pathology, 53: 574–578.Momol M.T., Mitchell D.J., Rayside P.A., Olson S.M., Momol E.A. (2000): Plant essential oils as potential biofumigants for the management of soil borne pathogens of tomato. Phytopathology, 90: S127.Moran R., Porath D. (1980): Chlorophyll Determination in Intact Tissues Using N,N-Dimethylformamide. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 65, 478-479 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.65.3.478Nandakumar R., Babu S., Viswanathan R., Raghuchander T., Samiyappan R. (2001): Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 33: 603–612.Nieman C. (1995): Influence of trace amounts of fatty acids on the growth of microorganisms. Bacteriology Reviews, 18: 147–163.Obagwu Joseph, Korsten Lise (2003): Integrated control of citrus green and blue molds using Bacillus subtilis in combination with sodium bicarbonate or hot water. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 28, 187-194 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00145-XOhira Toshiaki, Yamamoto Osamu, Iida Yasuhiro, Nakagawa Zenbe-e (2008): Antibacterial activity of ZnO powder with crystallographic orientation. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 19, 1407-1412 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-007-3246-8Oka Y., Nacar S., Putievsky E., Ravid U., Yaniv Z., Spiegel Y. ( 2000): Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode. Phytopathology, 90: 710–715.Romero D., de Vicente A., Zeriouh H., Cazorla F. M., Fernández-Ortuño D., Torés J. A., Pérez-García A. (2007): Evaluation of biological control agents for managing cucurbit powdery mildew on greenhouse-grown melon. Plant Pathology, 56, 976-986 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01684.xRussell J.B., Diaz-Gonzalez F. (1998): The effects of fermentation acids on bacterial growth. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 39: 205–234.Sagdic O., Karahan A. G., Ozcan M., Ozkan G. (): Note: Effect of Some Spice Extracts on Bacterial Inhibition. Food Science and Technology International, 9, 353-358 https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013203038976Salgueiro L., Martins A. P., Correia H. (2010): Raw materials: the importance of quality and safety. A review.. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 25, 253-271 https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1973Shahraki M., Heydari A., Hassanzadeh N., Rezaei S., Naraghi L. (2008): Investigation on the possibility of biological control of sugar beet seedling damping-off disease. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 13: 23–38.Shahraki M., Heydari A., Hassanzadeh N. (2009): Investigation of antibiotic, siderophore and volatile metabolite production by bacterial antagonists against Rhizoctonia solani. Iranian Journal of Biology, 22: 71–84.Shewry P.R., Lucas J.A. (1997): Plant proteins that confer resistance to pests and pathogens. Advances in Botanical Research, 26: 135–192.Sivakumar G., Sharma R.C. (2003): Induced biochemical changes due to seed bacterization by Pseudomonas fluorescens in maize plants. Indian Phytopathology, 56: 134–137.Skrivanova E., Marounek M., Dlouha G., Kanka J. (2005): Susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens to C2-C18 fatty acids. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 41, 77-81 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01709.xSprong R. C., Hulstein M. F. E., Van der Meer R. (2001): Bactericidal Activities of Milk Lipids. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 45, 1298-1301 https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.45.4.1298-1301.2001Stoimenov Peter K., Klinger Rosalyn L., Marchin George L., Klabunde Kenneth J. (2002): Metal Oxide Nanoparticles as Bactericidal Agents. Langmuir, 18, 6679-6686 https://doi.org/10.1021/la0202374Sunada Kayano, Kikuchi Yoshihiko, Hashimoto Kazuhito, Fujishima Akira (1998): Bactericidal and Detoxification Effects of TiO 2 Thin Film Photocatalysts. Environmental Science & Technology, 32, 726-728 https://doi.org/10.1021/es970860oSzczech M., Shoda M. (2004): Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia Damping-off of Tomato by Bacillus subtilis Combined with Burkholderia cepacia. Journal of Phytopathology, 152, 549-556 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2004.00894.xGUO Xiao-Fang, WEI Ze-Bin, WU Qi-Tang, QIU Jin-Rong, ZHOU Jian-Li (2011): Cadmium and Zinc Accumulation in Maize Grain as Affected by Cultivars and Chemical Fixation Amendments. Pedosphere, 21, 650-656 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(11)60167-7Zdor Robert E., Anderson A. J. (1992): Influence of root colonizing bacteria on the defense responses of bean. Plant and Soil, 140, 99-107 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00012811