Arthropod pests of pistachios, their natural enemies and management

https://doi.org/10.17221/63/2019-PPSCitation:

Mehrnejad M.R. (2020): Arthropod pests of pistachio, their natural enemies and management. Plant Protect. Sci., 56: 231–260.

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Commercial pistachio cultivation and production began about a century ago in Iran. The size of this industry has gradually increased and the pistachio nut production in Iran is now the largest worldwide, although it has declined over last few years due to long periods of harsh drought, the mismanagement of water resources and the impact of climate change. Research on pests and diseases was started in the 1940s due to the demands of the growers who were facing economic damage by herbivorous insects. Much research has been undertaken over the last 75 years to improve production procedures and the present article summarises the available information on pistachio pests, their natural enemies and management.

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