Efficacy and limitations of phosphine “spot-fumigation” against five Coleoptera species of stored product pests in wheat in a grain store – short note
R. Aulický, V. Stejskalhttps://doi.org/10.17221/71/2014-PPSCitation:Aulický R., Stejskal V. (2015): Efficacy and limitations of phosphine “spot-fumigation” against five Coleoptera species of stored product pests in wheat in a grain store – short note. Plant Protect. Sci., 51: 33-38.
Field validation of spot-fumigation with phosphine (PH3) applied by a subcontracted pest-control company in a farm grain store infested by pests was conducted. Inside and outside of the fumigated grain spot, containers with adults of 5 species of coleopteran stored-product pests were regularly spaced. The beetle pests were the internally feeding Sitophilus granarius and Rhyzopertha dominica, and the externally feeding Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Cryptolestes ferrugineus. A 100% mortality of all pest species inside the fumigated spot under the sheet used for the application was stated. The efficacy (maximal) sharply declined with the increasing distance from the fumigated spot: 50% mortality was observed at 5 m from the spot, 38% mortality at 10 m, and a mortality of 23% was observed at 15 m. Mortality was different among the species, and the most sensitive was O. surinamensis, whereas the most tolerant were S. granarius, R. dominica, and T. castaneum. Although an efficient fumigation within the spot was found, the efficacy was low in the grains surrounding the spot. The practical implications of the findings are discussed.Keywords:stores; stored grain; pests; protection; insecticides; fumigation; PH3; disporsalReferences:
Arthur Frank H. (2008): Aerosol distribution and efficacy in a commercial food warehouse. Insect Science, 15, 133-140 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2008.00193.xAulicky, R., Stejskal V., Dlouhy M., Liskova J. (2015): Validation of hydrogen cyanide fumigation in flourmills to control the confused flour beetle. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 33. doi: 10.17221/303/2014-CJFS.Athanassiou Christos G., Kavallieratos Nickolas G., Sciarretta Andrea, Palyvos Nickolas E., Trematerra Pasquale (2011): Spatial Associations of Insects and Mites in Stored Wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104, 1752-1764 https://doi.org/10.1603/EC10376Barker P.S. (1974a): A theoretical consideration of the behaviour of air-fumigant mixtures in stored grains in relation to the laws of gases I. Manitoba Entomologist, 8: 80–84.Barker P.S. (1974b): Hydrogen phosphide concentration gradients in wheat. Manitoba Entomologist, 8: 85–89.Bell C.H (2000): Fumigation in the 21st century. Crop Protection, 19, 563-569 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00073-9Bond E.J. (1984): Manual of Fumigation for Insect Control. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper No. 54. Rome, FAO.Campbell James F., Arthur Frank H., Zhu Kun Yan (2014): Spatial Pattern in Aerosol Insecticide Deposition Inside a Flour Mill. Journal of Economic Entomology, 107, 440-454 https://doi.org/10.1603/EC13423Ducom P., Roussel C., Stefanini V. (2007): Quick stored products disinfestation before processing one or two day phosphine fumigation. In: Donahaye E.J., Navarro S., Bell C., Jayas D., Noyes R., Phillips T.W. (eds): Proceeding International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Gold-Coast Australia, Aug 8–13, 2004. Moshav Hadid, FTIC Ltd. Publishing: 47–52.Ignatowicz S., Olejarski P., Oboza I. (2010): Reaction of Polish industry to reduction of pesticides suitable for stored product protection. Julius-Kühn-Archiv, Berlin, 429: 80–85.Jian Fuji, Jayas Digvir S., White Noel D.G. (2014): How many kilograms of grain per sample unit is big enough? Part I – Comparison of insect detection and density estimation between manual probe sampling and Insector® system. Journal of Stored Products Research, 56, 60-66 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2013.05.007Mani S., Muir W.E., Jayas, D.S., White N.D.G. (2001): Computer modelling of insect-induced hot spots in stored wheat. Canadian Biosystems Engineering/Le génie des biosystèmes au Canada, 43: 4.7–4.14.Monro H.A.U. (1969): Manual of Fumigation for Insect Control. FAO Agricultural Studies, No. 79. Rome, FAO.Opit G. P., Phillips T. W., Aikins M. J., Hasan M. M. (2012): Phosphine Resistance in <I>Tribolium castaneum</I> and <I>Rhyzopertha dominica</I> From Stored Wheat in Oklahoma. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105, 1107-1114 https://doi.org/10.1603/EC12064Phillips T.W., Doud C.W., Toews M.D., Reed C., Hagstrum D., Flinn P. (2001): Trapping and sampling stored-product insects before and after commercial fumigation treatments. In: Donahaye E.J., Navarro S., Leesch J.G. (eds): Proceedings International Conference Controlled Atmospheres and Fumigation of Stored Products. Fresno, USA, Oct 29–Nov 3, 2000. Clovis, Executive Printing Services: 685–696.Reed Carl, Pan Hongde (2000): Loss of phosphine from unsealed bins of wheat at six combinations of grain temperature and grain moisture content. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36, 263-279 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-474X(99)00049-1Sinclair ER, Alder J (1984): Migration of stored-grain insect pests from a small wheat bulk. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 24, 260- https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9840260Sinha R. N., Wallace H. A. H. (1966): Ecology of insect-induced hot spots in stored grain in western Canada. Researches on Population Ecology, 8, 107-132 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02518801Stejskal Václav (1995): The influence of food and shelter on the efficacy of a commercial sticky trap in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 31, 229-233 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(95)00011-UStejskal V. (2003): Economic Injury Level and preventive pest control. Journal of Pest Science, 76: 170–172.Stejskal V., Hubert J. (2008): Risk of occupational allergy to stored grain arthropods and false pest-risk perception in Czech grain stores. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 15: 29–35.Stejskal V., Hubert J., Kučerová Z., Munzbergová Z., Lukáš J., Žďárková E. (2003): The influence of the type of storage on pest infestation of stored grain in the Czech Republic. Plant, Soil and Environment, 49: 55–62.Stejskal V., Aulicky R., Kucerova Z., Lukas J. (2008): Method of sampling and laboratory extraction affects interpretation of grain infestation by storage pests. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 115: 129–133.Stejskal V., Aulicky R., Kucerova Z. (2014.): Pest control strategies and damage potential of seed-infesting pests in the Czech stores – a review. Plant Protection Science, 50: 165–173.Trematerra P., Stejskal V., Hubert J. (2011): The monitoring of semolina contamination by insect fragments using the light filth method in an Italian mill. Food Control, 22, 1021-1026 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.11.026