Damage to corn by fungi of the genus Fusarium and the presence of fusariotoxins
Jan Nedělníkhttps://doi.org/10.17221/4848-PPSCitation:Nedělník J. (2002): Damage to corn by fungi of the genus Fusarium and the presence of fusariotoxins. Plant Protect. Sci., 38: 46-54.
In 1998 and 1999 a total of 84 samples of corn, predominantly from localities in southern and central Moravia, were collected either directly from fields (entire ears at harvest maturity) or as grain from merchants. The objectives of the experiments were (a) to determine, on the basis of the results from mycological and toxicological analyses, the basic spectrum of fungal contaminants of corn in the Czech Republic with special reference to the genus Fusarium, and (b) to determine by enzyme immunoassay the presence of major toxic metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins (FUM) in grain samples. From naturally infected corn, representatives of seven fungal genera were isolated under in vitro conditions in both harvest years. Most frequent were species of the genus Fusarium (mean contamination of 44.6%). The next frequent genus was Stemphylium (29.3%). Eight species of Fusarium were found. In both years the most frequent species was Fusarium graminearum (1998 – 42.75%, 1999 – 41.8%), followed by F. culmorum. DON was found in 95.2% of the samples; its content ranged from 25 to 285 µg/kg. The content of T-2 varied more than that of DON, ranging from 12 to 875 µg/kg. Zearalenone content was more varied than that of the trichothecene-type compounds; 17% of the samples did not contain ZEA, the maximum content was 110 µg/kg. No FUM were found in 17% of the samples; in the others, FUM ranged from 12 to nearly 1000 µg/kg. Compared with the other three compounds, fumonisins showed generally the highest levels.Keywords:
Fusarium spp.; corn; mycotoxins; contamination; ELISA