Mycotoxins and related Fusarium species in preharvest maize ear rot in Poland  

https://doi.org/10.17221/119/2016-PSECitation:Gromadzka K., Górna K., Chełkowski J., Waśkiewicz A. (2016): Mycotoxins and related Fusarium species in preharvest maize ear rot in Poland  . Plant Soil Environ., 62: 348-354.
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This work presents a survey on mycotoxins (seasons 2013 and 2014) and Fusarium species (seasons from 1985 to 2014) in maize ear rot in Poland. Twelve mycotoxins were identified in maize kernel samples exhibiting symptoms of Fusarium ear rot or rotten kernels at the harvest in two locations in Poland during the seasons 2013 and 2014. This is the first complex survey on the co-occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxin groups in maize kernels: the group of the mycohormone zearalenone; the group of trichothecenes – deoxynivalenol and nivalenol; the group of fumonisins; and the group of cyclic hexadepsipeptides – beauvericin and enniatins; and in addition, moniliformin. Four Fusarium species were identified in preharvest maize ear rot in the 2013 and 2014 harvests namely:
F. graminearum, F. poae, F. subglutinans and F. verticillioides. Since 1985, eleven Fusarium species have been identified in 13 investigation seasons. Apart from those mentioned above, F. avenaceum, F. cerealis, F. culmorum and
F. sporotrichioides were observed with irregular frequencies, and three species, i.e. F. proliferatum, F. tricinctum and F. equiseti, were identified sporadically. A significant increase of F. verticillioides frequency and a decrease of F. subglutinans frequency and changes of mycotoxin profile have been observed in the two decades since 1995.  
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