Effect of phosphorus application technique on effectiveness indices of its use in maize cultivation
The study presents results of 4-year field trials; their purpose was to assess the effectiveness indices of phosphorus recovery in maize cultivation depending on the depth of two-component fertiliser (NP) placement in the soil layer, type of nitrogen fertiliser (ammonium nitrate and urea) and time point of the application. The hypothesis of the experiment assumed that different depth of NP fertiliser placement improved the indices of phosphorus application in maize cultivation. Row fertilisation with two-component NP fertiliser, regardless of the year, clearly affected phosphorus accumulation (uptake) with grain yield. The recovery metabolism index, i.e., the phosphorus recovery of a mineral fertiliser component was at a low level (on average < 12%). Row application, regardless of the depth of fertiliser placement, was more effective in relation to broadcast sowing. The index of agricultural efficiency of phosphorus confirms the significant impact of the depth of NP fertiliser placement at 5 cm in the soil as optimal for agricultural practice. The use of nitrogen in maize cultivation before sowing, compared to the application of this component at the BBCH 15/16 stage, significantly increases agricultural effectiveness of phosphorus applied as mineral fertiliser. The placement of NP fertiliser deep in the soil profile was more effective compared to traditional broadcast fertilisation. The method of fertiliser application in maize cultivation can thus be a tool increasing cultivation profitability in both economic and environmental terms.
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