Content of phenolic antioxidants and selenium in grain of einkorn (Triticum monococcum), emmer (Triticum dicoccum) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties

https://doi.org/10.17221/13/2011-PSECitation:Lachman J., Miholová D., Pivec V., Jírů K., Janovská D. (2011): Content of phenolic antioxidants and selenium in grain of einkorn (Triticum monococcum), emmer (Triticum dicoccum) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties. Plant Soil Environ., 57: 235-243.
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Wheat is worldwide consumed and contributes significantly to the intake of antioxidants with beneficial healthy effects. In the precise two-year field experiments in 2008 and 2009 two varieties of wheat einkorn, two varieties of emmer wheat and three varieties of spring wheat and in 2009 in addition two other spring wheat varieties, three einkorn varieties and three emmer wheat varieties were evaluated for selenium content and antioxidants – total polyphenols (TP). Selenium content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation technique (HGAAS) and total polyphenols with Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Higher selenium content in grain is related to emmer (58.9–68.4 mg/kg DM) and einkorn (50.0–54.8 mg/kg DM) varieties; in spring varieties selenium content ranged from 29.8 to 39.9 mg/kg DM. Among the varieties with high TP (expressed in gallic acid equivalents) emmer varieties prevail (584–692 mg/kg DM), less represented are einkorn (507–612 mg/kg DM) and spring wheat (502–601 mg/kg DM) varieties. Among varieties significant differences were determined. TP were significantly higher in emmer wheat varieties and one einkorn and one spring wheat variety. Between TP and Se significant linear correlation was determined (r = 0.709).  
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