Cadmium balance in soils under different fertilization managements including sewage sludge application
K. Čásová, J. Černý, J. Száková, J. Balík, P. Tlustošhttps://doi.org/10.17221/142/2009-PSECitation:Čásová K., Černý J., Száková J., Balík J., Tlustoš P. (2009): Cadmium balance in soils under different fertilization managements including sewage sludge application. Plant Soil Environ., 55: 353-361.
Simple balance of Cd input by different treatments and removal by agricultural crops was investigated in an ongoing precise long-term field experiment with application of sewage sludge (SS), farmyard manure (FYM), and mineral fertilizers (NPK). Potatoes, wheat and barley were grown in a rotation at 4 experimental sites of the Czech Republic with the aim to assess the risk of Cd accumulation in soil and plants under different soil and climate conditions. The results showed significant differences in Cd content of the input materials used, and in Cd inputs to soils under different fertilization managements. Three applications of sewage sludge during 1996–2005 resulted in total addition of 110 g Cd/ha into soil, which was by one order of magnitude higher than Cd addition in FYM or NPK treatments. From the total amount of sludge-borne Cd, only small portion was removed by harvests of crops (approximately 3.5%). Soil conditions significantly affected Cd input-removal balance. The highest Cd removals were obtained on soils with the lowest pH. The highest Cd removal was achieved by potato tubers followed by wheat and barley plants. The results showed that the risk of Cd accumulation in soils is high, especially with repeated sludge applications.Keywords:sewage sludge; cadmium; input-removal balance; long-term field experiment