Several sets of soil samples were chosen to demonstrate the applicability of the Mehlich 3 extractant for the determination of sulphur (S) in soils. Archived samples from 139 basal soil monitoring plots (BSMS) sampled in 1995 and 2013, samples from eleven long-term field trials sampled in 1981 and 2017, 1167 soil samples from the areas vulnerable to S losses and 720 samples from the non-vulnerable areas sampled in 2010 were chosen for the experiments. Mehlich 3 clearly showed a statistically highly significant decrease in the soil S content caused by reduction of SO2 emissions in the long-term field experiments from 33 mg/kg in 1981 to 8 mg/kg in 2017 for the median of the untreated controls. Similar results were obtained for BSMS samples, where an average decrease from 26 mg/kg in 1995 to 17 mg/kg in 2013 was found. Mehlich 3 also showed that more than 52% of samples from the areas vulnerable to S losses were in a very low content category in contrast to only 3% of soils from the other areas. Mehlich 3 clearly proved the capacity to distinguish changes in the content of soil S in all studied cases.
Balík J., Kulhánek M., Černý J., Száková J., Pavlíková D., Čermák P. (2009): Differences in soil sulfur fractions due to limitation of atmospheric deposition. Plant, Soil and Environment, 55, 344-352 https://doi.org/10.17221/101/2009-PSE
Carciochi Walter D., Divito Guillermo A., Fernández Lucrecia A., Echeverría Hernán E. (2017): Sulfur affects root growth and improves nitrogen recovery and internal efficiency in wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40, 1231-1242 https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1187740
Edwards P.J. (1998): Sulfur Cycling, Retention, and Mobility in Soils: A Review. USDA General Technical Report NE – 250. Delaware, United States Department of Agriculture.
EEA (2015): Sulphur dioxide emissions. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark. Available at: https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea-32-sulphur-dioxide-so2-emissions-1/assessment-3#tab-related-briefings (accessed 04 Sep 2015)
Esmel C.E., Santos B.M., Rechcigl J.E., Toor G., Simonne E.H., Noling J.W. (2010): Searching for an ideal soil extractant for determining sulfur in sandy soils. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 123: 169–174.
Haneklaus S., Bloem E., Schnug E. (2002): Sulfur. In: Lal R. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Soil Science. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1282–1288.
Jones J. Benton (2008): Universal soil extractants: Their composition and use. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 21, 1091-1101 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629009368292
Ketterings Quirine, Miyamoto Chie, Mathur Renuka Rao, Dietzel Kevin, Gami Sanjay (2011): A Comparison of Soil Sulfur Extraction Methods. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75, 1578- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2010.0407
Klement V., Smatanová M., Trávník K. (2012): Fifty years of agrochemical testing of agricultural soils in the Czech Republic and forty years of long-term experiments in Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture. Brno, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture.
Kulhánek M., Balík J., Černý J., Sedlář O., Vašák F. (2016): Evaluating of soil sulfur forms changes under different fertilizing systems during long-term field experiments . Plant, Soil and Environment, 62, 408-415 https://doi.org/10.17221/236/2016-PSE
Kowalenko C.G., Bittman S., Neilsen G.H., Kenney E., Hunt D.E., Neilsen D. (2014): Potential for improving sulfur tests on agricultural soils in contrasting ecoregions of British Columbia, Canada. Geoderma Regional, 1, 10-20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geodrs.2014.06.001
Matula J. (2008): Use of multinutrient soil tests for sulphur determination. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 30, 1733-1746 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629909370326
Mehlich A. (2008): New extractant for soil test evaluation of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese and zinc. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 9, 477-492 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103627809366824
Mehlich A. (2008): Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409-1416 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103628409367568
Mitchell M.J., Alewell C. (2008): Sulfur transformation and fluxes. In: Ward C. (ed): Encyclopedia of Soil Science. The Nertherlands, Springer, 757–764.
Ostatek-Boczynski Zofia A., Lee-Steere Peimaneh (2012): Evaluation of Mehlich 3 as a Universal Nutrient Extractant for Australian Sugarcane Soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43, 623-630 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2012.643845
Rao T. Nagendra, Sharma Pritam K. (2008): Evaluation of Mehlich III as an extractant for available soil sulfur. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 28, 1033-1046 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629709369853
Sáňka M., Chvátal V., Němec P. (1998): Basal soil monitoring and monitoring of atmospheric depositions. Procedures. Brno, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture. (In Czech)
Wilhelm Scherer Heinrich (2009): Sulfur in soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 172, 326-335 https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200900037
Zbíral J. (1999): Comparison of some extracting methods for determination of sulphur in soils of the Czech Republic. Rostlinná Výroba, 45: 1–7.
Zbíral J. (2000): Analysis of Mehlich III soil extracts by ICP-AES. Rostlinná Výroba, 46: 141–146.
Zbíral Jirí, Němec Pavel (2008): Data presentation, interpretation, and communication. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 31, 2171-2182 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620009370574
Zbíral J. (2016a): Determination of plant-available micronutrients by the Mehlich 3 soil extractant – A proposal of critical values. Plant, Soil and Environment, 62: 527–531.
Zbíral J. (ed) (2016b): Standard Working Procedures of the CISTA. Soil Analysis I. Method 30074.1. Brno, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture. (In Czech)