Physical properties of soil after 54 years of long-term fertilization and crop rotation I., Pawlak-Zaręba K., Gozdowski D., Perzanowska A. (2016): Physical properties of soil after 54 years of long-term fertilization and crop rotation  . Plant Soil Environ., 62: 389-394.
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The investigations were carried out in two permanent fertilization experiments established in 1955 on the black earth in Chylice, near Warsaw, Mazovian province, Poland. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of long-term mineral (NPK); organic (FM) and mixed mineral-organic (½ NPK + ½ FM) fertilization in two crop rotations on some soil physical properties, including the soil structure, dry bulk density, soil moisture and field water capacity. The fertilization systems and using red clover in crop rotation significantly influenced soil structure and water conditions. Farmyard manure (FM, ½ NPK + ½ FM) application in both crop rotations increased mean weight diameter of water-resistant aggregate, water aggregate stability and field water capacity in comparison to unfertilized and mineral treatments. The dry soil bulk density was lower in soil fertilized with farmyard manure than in soil unfertilized. The most favourable effect on physical soil properties exerted farmyard manure (FM,
½ NPK + ½ FM) in crop rotation with red clover. A positive correlation was also proved between the soil structure parameters and field water capacity.  
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