Biochar immobilizes cadmium and zinc and improves phytoextraction potential of willow plants on extremely contaminated soil
K. Břendová, P. Tlustoš, J. Szákováhttps://doi.org/10.17221/181/2015-PSECitation:Břendová K., Tlustoš P., Száková J. (2015): Biochar immobilizes cadmium and zinc and improves phytoextraction potential of willow plants on extremely contaminated soil. Plant Soil Environ., 61: 303-308.
The availability of risk elements in soil can be possibly reduced by various soil additives. Among them, the attention has been recently focused on the research of unconventional soil additive – biochar. The aim of this study was (i) to observe the effect of biochar application on risk elements transport through the soil profile and (ii) to assess the availability of risk elements in biochar amended soil to willow growth. The experiment was established at greenhouse conditions and extremely contaminated soil, reaching 43 mg/kg cadmium (Cd) and 4340 mg/kg zinc (Zn), was used. To observe risk element content in leachate, the lysimeter cylinders were tested. The rates of biochar were 0 (control); 5, 10, and 15% per mass of soil. The results showed that biochar significantly increased biomass production whereas the plant Cd and Zn contents remained unchanged in most cases. In leachate, Cd and Zn content decreased by 99% at all the biochar treatments. We can summarize that biochar appears to be a very effective regulator of availability of observed risk elements and improver agent for biomass production of plants and remediation efficiency.Keywords:
heavy metals; soil contamination; Salix × smithiana; phytoremediation; stabilizationReferences:
Beesley Luke, Moreno-Jiménez Eduardo, Gomez-Eyles Jose L. (2010): Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environmental Pollution, 158, 2282-2287 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.02.003Ciccu R., Ghiani M., Serci A., Fadda S., Peretti R., Zucca A. (2003): Heavy metal immobilization in the mining-contaminated soils using various industrial wastes. Minerals Engineering, 16, 187-192 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0892-6875(03)00003-7Clark R.B, Ritchey K.D, Baligar V.C (2001): Benefits and constraints for use of FGD products on agricultural land. Fuel, 80, 821-828 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(00)00162-9Jensen Julie K., Holm Peter E., Nejrup Jens, Larsen Morten B., Borggaard Ole K. (2009): The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils. Environmental Pollution, 157, 931-937 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.10.024Jiang Jun, Xu Ren-kou, Jiang Tian-yu, Li Zhuo (2012): Immobilization of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by the addition of rice straw derived biochar to a simulated polluted Ultisol. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 229-230, 145-150 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.086JORDAN CARL F. (1968): A SIMPLE, TENSION-FREE LYSIMETER. Soil Science, 105, 81-86 https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-196802000-00003Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H. (2001): Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd Ed. Boca Raton, CRC Press.Kubešová Marie, Kučera Jan (2010): Validation of k0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis—The use of Kayzero for Windows programme at the nuclear physics institute, Řež. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 622, 403-406 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2009.12.079Laird David, Fleming Pierce, Wang Baiqun, Horton Robert, Karlen Douglas (2010): Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma, 158, 436-442 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.05.012Lettens S., Vandecasteele B., De Vos B., Vansteenkiste D., Verschelde P. (2011): Intra- and inter-annual variation of Cd, Zn, Mn and Cu in foliage of poplars on contaminated soil. Science of The Total Environment, 409, 2306-2316 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.029Meers E., Vandecasteele B., Ruttens A., Vangronsveld J., Tack F.M.G. (2007): Potential of five willow species (Salix spp.) for phytoextraction of heavy metals. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 60, 57-68 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2006.06.008Němeček J., Vácha R., Podlešáková E. (2010): Assessment of Soil Contamination in the Czech Republic. Prague, Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation. (In Czech)Ochecova Pavla, Tlustos Pavel, Szakova Jirina (2014): Wheat and Soil Response to Wood Fly Ash Application in Contaminated Soils. Agronomy Journal, 106, 995- https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj13.0363Panagos Panos, Van Liedekerke Marc, Yigini Yusuf, Montanarella Luca (2013): Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2013, 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/158764Paz-Ferreiro J., Lu H., Fu S., Méndez A., Gascó G. (2014): Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review. Solid Earth, 5, 65-75 https://doi.org/10.5194/se-5-65-2014Pulford I (2003): Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review. Environment International, 29, 529-540 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00152-6Qayyum M.F., Steffens D., Reisenauer H.P., Schubert S. (2014): Biochars influence differential distribution and chemical composition of soil organic matter. Plant, Soil and Environment, 60: 337–343.Robinson B.H., Mills T.M., Petit D., Fung L.E., Green S.R., Clothier B.E. (2000): Natural and induced cadmium-accumulation in poplar and willow: Implications for phytoremediation. Plant and Soil, 227: 301–306. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026515007319Street R., Száková J., Drábek O., Mládková L. (2006): The status of micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in tea and Te infusions in selected samples imported to the Czech Republic. Czech Journal of Food Science, 24: 62–71.Tlustoš Pavel, Száková Jir̆ina, Vysloužilová Markéta, Pavlíková Daniela, Weger Jan, Javorská Hana (2007): Variation in the uptake of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc by different species of willows Salix spp. grown in contaminated soils. Open Life Sciences, 2, - https://doi.org/10.2478/s11535-007-0012-3Trakal L., Neuberg M., Tlustoš P., Száková J., Tejnecký V., Drábek O. (2011): Dolomite limestone application as a chemical immobilization of metal-contaminated soil. Plant, Soil and Environment, 57: 173–179.Uprety Dharam, Hejcman Michal, Száková Jiřina, Kunzová Eva, Tlustoš Pavel (2009): Concentration of trace elements in arable soil after long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 85, 241-252 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-009-9263-xUre A. M., Quevauviller Ph., Muntau H., Griepink B. (1993): Speciation of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments. An Account of the Improvement and Harmonization of Extraction Techniques Undertaken Under the Auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51, 135-151 https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319308027619Uzinger N., Anton A. (2008): Chemical stabilization of heavy metals on contaminated soils by lignite. Cereal Research Communications, 36: 1911–1914.Vondráčková S., Hejcman M., Tlustoš P., Száková J. (2013): Effect of quick lime and dolomite application on mobility of elements (Cd, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, and Mn) in contaminated soils. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22: 577–589.Vysloužilová M., Tlustoš P., Száková J., Pavlíková D. (2003): As, Cd, Pb and Zn uptake by Salix spp. clones grown in soils enriched by high loads of these elements. Plant, Soil and Environment, 49: 191–196.Zhang Guixiang, Zhang Qing, Sun Ke, Liu Xitao, Zheng Wenjuan, Zhao Ye (2011): Sorption of simazine to corn straw biochars prepared at different pyrolytic temperatures. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2594-2601 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.012Vaněk V., Balík J., Černý J., Pavlík M., Pavlíková D., Tlustoš P., Valtera J. (2012): Nutrition of Horticulture Crops. Praha, Academia. (In Czech)