Production of morphine and variability of significant characters of Papaver somniferum L.

https://doi.org/10.17221/222/2011-PSECitation:Matyášová E., Novák J., Stránská I., Hejtmánková A., Skalický M., Hejtmánková K., Hejnák V. (2011): Production of morphine and variability of significant characters of Papaver somniferum L. Plant Soil Environ., 57: 423-428.
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Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is currently an important agricultural commodity, with the product being used in the food industry (seed) as well as in the pharmaceutical industry (morphine and other alkaloids). Intensive production of poppy leads to a specific direction of breeding with the aim to obtain highly productive cultivars of the so-called food industry or industrial type. The paper evaluates 57 genetic resources (mostly cultivars), comparing the groups of values representing the indicators of production-significant morphologic and agricultural characters (capsule size; morphine content in poppy straw; weight of dry, empty capsule) and content of morphine in the poppy straw, in relation to the ideotype of poppy, which in these indicators represents 100% of the value. On average lower values in the above indicators were achieved by cultivars with white-coloured seed, including morphine content; concrete data are specified in three cultivars with morphine content in the poppy straw above 0.40%. In blue-seed to grey-seed cultivars, except for the high-morphine cultivar Buddha (1.85% of morphine), we found only six materials with a minimum morphine content of 0.8% in the poppy straw (maximum of 0.92%). These genetic resources also achieved very good values in the morphological indicator and average value in the economic indicator. The results will be used in the selection and classification of suitable genetic resources of poppy in breeding of industrial forms.
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