Effect of different soil and weather conditions on efficacy, selectivity and dissipation of herbicides in sunflower


Jursík M., Kočárek M., Kolářová M., Tichý L. (2020): Effect of different soil and weather conditions on efficacy, selectivity and dissipation of herbicides in sunflower. Plant Soil Environ., 66: 468–476.


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Six sunflower herbicides were tested at two application rates (1N and 2N) on three locations (with different soil types) within three years (2015–2017). Efficacy of the tested herbicides on Chenopodium album increased with an increasing cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil. Efficacy of pendimethalin was 95%, flurochloridone and aclonifen 94%, dimethenamid-P 72%, pethoxamid 49% and S-metolachlor 47%. All tested herbicides injured sunflower on sandy soil (Regosol) which had the lowest CEC, especially in wet conditions (phytotoxicity 27% after 1N application rate). The highest phytotoxicity was recorded after the application of dimethenamid-P (19% at 1N and 45% at 2N application rate). Main symptoms of phytotoxicity were leaf deformations and necroses and the damage of growing tips, which led to destruction of some plants. Aclonifen, pethoxamid and S-metolachlor at 1N did not injure sunflower on the soil with the highest CEC (Chernozem) in any of the experimental years. Persistence of tested herbicides was significantly longer in Fluvisol (medium CEC) compared to Regosol and Chernozem. Dimethenamid-P showed the shortest persistence in Regosol and Chernozem. The majority of herbicides was detected in the soil layer 0–5 cm in all tested soils. Vertical transport of herbicides in soil was affected by the herbicide used, soil type and weather conditions. The highest vertical transport was recorded for dimethenamid-P and pethoxamid (4, resp. 6% of applied rate) in Regosol in the growing season with high precipitation.


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