Seasonal emergence of selected summer annual weed species in dependence on soil temperature

https://doi.org/10.17221/22/2010-PSECitation:Jursík M., Holec J., Soukup J., Venclová V. (2010): Seasonal emergence of selected summer annual weed species in dependence on soil temperature. Plant Soil Environ., 56: 444-450.
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This study aimed to describe emergence cycles of selected weed species under Central European conditions in relation to cumulative soil temperatures from the start of the vegetation season. Emergence of Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Galinsoga ciliata, and Abutilon theophrasti was observed from March to October during the period 2001–2006 at two locations. The beginning of main field emergence was determined as the day when the sum of effective hour temperatures was achieved, and was detected from the second decade of April to early May for C. album, in the second decade of May for E. crus-galli, from late April to the beginning of May for G. ciliata, and from the end of April to mid-May for A. theophrasti. The relationship between cumulative soil surface layer temperature and weed mass field emergence at the beginning of the growing season is very direct (differences ±7 days) – but only when soil moisture is sufficient. In a drier spring, the beginning of mass field emergence occurs with 1–4 weeks of delay and field emergence is usually slower and protracted.
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