Effect of long-term differential application of inorganic fertilizers and manure on soil CO2 emissions
Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from agricultural soils have been considered as one of the important environmental impact issue, due to their role in global warming and also its mitigation by carbon (C) sequestration in soils. Substantial scope of C sequestration with the application of inorganic fertilizers and manures has been reported, but the long-term effects of continuous application need to be critically examined. To study the effect of continuous differential application of NPK fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM) in maize-wheat cropping system, CO2 fluxes were measured via closed chambers and gas chromatography in a long-term experiment in progress for the past 42 years. The average daily CO2 fluxes differed significantly amongst various treatments and were 55, 26 and 92% higher in NPK, N and NPK + FYM treatments over the control in the maize crop season and 43, 8 and 83% in the wheat crop season. Highly significant correlation of CO2 emissions was found with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the maize and the wheat crop seasons. Although, CO2 emissions were higher from long-term inorganic fertilizers and FYM treatments, still they are environmentally sustainable management practices, as they increased soil fertility and crop yields which consequently resulted in higher atmospheric CO2 capture by plants and carbon sequestration in soils.
Adviento-Borbe M. A. A., Kaye J. P., Bruns M. A., McDaniel M. D., McCoy M., Harkcom S. (2010): Soil Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions in Long-Term Maize-Based Cropping Systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74, 1623- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2009.0446
Allaire Suzanne E., Lange Sébastien F., Lafond Jonathan A., Pelletier Bernard, Cambouris Athyna N., Dutilleul Pierre (2012): Multiscale spatial variability of CO2 emissions and correlations with physico-chemical soil properties. Geoderma, 170, 251-260 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.11.019
Dhadli Harmanjit S, Brar B S, Black T A (2015): Influence of crop growth and weather variables on soil CO 2
emissions in a maize-wheat cropping system. Agricultural Research Journal, 52, 28- https://doi.org/10.5958/2395-146X.2015.00032.0
Dhadli Harmanjit S., Brar Babu S., Kingra Pavneet K. (2016): Temporal Variations in N 2
O Emissions in Maize and Wheat Crop Seasons: Impact of N-Fertilization, Crop Growth, and Weather Variables. Journal of Crop Improvement, , 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2015.1095264
Ding Weixin, Meng Lei, Yin Yunfeng, Cai Zucong, Zheng Xunhua (2007): CO2 emission in an intensively cultivated loam as affected by long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39, 669-679 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.09.024
Ding Xueli, Yuan Yaru, Liang Yao, Li Lujun, Han Xiaozeng (2014): Impact of long-term application of manure, crop residue, and mineral fertilizer on organic carbon pools and crop yields in a Mollisol. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 14, 854-859 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-013-0840-x
Fu S.L., Cheng W.X., Susfalk R. (2002): Rhizosphere respiration varies with plant species and phenology: A greenhouse pot experiment. Plant and Soil, 239: 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014959701396
Gong Wei, Yan Xiao-yuan, Wang Jing-yan, Hu Ting-xing, Gong Yuan-bo (2009): Long-term manuring and fertilization effects on soil organic carbon pools under a wheat–maize cropping system in North China Plain. Plant and Soil, 314, 67-76 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9705-2
Gong Wei, Yan Xiaoyuan, Wang Jingyan (2012): The effect of chemical fertilizer on soil organic carbon renewal and CO2 emission—a pot experiment with maize. Plant and Soil, 353, 85-94 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-1011-8
Jans Wilma W.P., Jacobs Cor M.J., Kruijt Bart, Elbers Jan A., Barendse Suzanne, Moors Eddy J. (2010): Carbon exchange of a maize (Zea mays L.) crop: Influence of phenology. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 139, 316-324 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.06.008
Mapanda Farai, Wuta Menas, Nyamangara Justice, Rees Robert M. (2011): Effects of organic and mineral fertilizer nitrogen on greenhouse gas emissions and plant-captured carbon under maize cropping in Zimbabwe. Plant and Soil, 343, 67-81 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0753-7
Mbonimpa Eric G., Hong Chang O., Owens Vance N., Lehman R. Michael, Osborne Shannon L., Schumacher Thomas E., Clay David E., Kumar Sandeep (2014): Nitrogen fertilizer and landscape position impacts on CO 2
and CH 4
fluxes from a landscape seeded to switchgrass. GCB Bioenergy, , n/a-n/a https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12187
Parkin T. B., Venterea R. T., Hargreaves S. K. (2012): Calculating the Detection Limits of Chamber-based Soil Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurements. Journal of Environment Quality, 41, 705- https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0394
Peng Qin, Dong Yunshe, Qi Yuchun, Xiao Shengsheng, He Yating, Ma Tao (2011): Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration in temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62, 1163-1171 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0605-4
Sey Benjamin K., Manceur Ameur M., Whalen Joann K., Gregorich Edward G., Rochette Philippe (2010): Root-derived respiration and nitrous oxide production as affected by crop phenology and nitrogen fertilization. Plant and Soil, 326, 369-379 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0018-x
Smith K.A. (1999): After the Kyoto Protocol: Can soil scientists make a useful contribution? Soil Use and Management, 15: 71–75.
Song Changchun, Zhang Jinbo (2009): Effects of soil moisture, temperature, and nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration and nitrous oxide emission during maize growth period in northeast China. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Plant Soil Science, 59, 97-106 https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710802022945
Subbiah B.V., Asija (1965): A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Current Science India, 25: 259–260.
WALKLEY A., BLACK I. ARMSTRONG (1934): AN EXAMINATION OF THE DEGTJAREFF METHOD FOR DETERMINING SOIL ORGANIC MATTER, AND A PROPOSED MODIFICATION OF THE CHROMIC ACID TITRATION METHOD. Soil Science, 37, 29-38 https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003
Zhang J.J., Li Y.F., Jiang P.K., Zhou G.M., Shen Z.M., Liu J., Wang Z.L. (2013): Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand. Journal of Applied Ecology, 24: 2431–2439.