Phosphorus (P) stratification in no-tillage (NT) systems has important implications for crop growth and potential P loss, but little is known about P forms and their distribution when mineral P fertilizers are placed to the depth of 5 cm in NT soil. A 10-year field experiment was used to study the effect of NT and mouldboard plough (MP) on soil P forms at three depths (0–5, 5–10 and 10–20 cm) and their relationship with Fe and Al oxides. The results indicated that stratification of organic P forms occurred under NT treatment, and Fe oxides may have a stronger capacity for adsorbing the P forms. When mineral P fertilizers were placed to the depth of 5 cm under NT treatment, there was no significant difference in P forms or crop yield between NT and MP treatment, and orthophosphate did not show any significant difference under NT treatment between 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. Overall, the agricultural management practice that mineral P fertilizers are placed to the depth of 5 cm under NT treatment could result in stratification of P forms, while the changes in the distribution of P forms in soil profiles might help reduce potential P loss in surface runoff and do not make any difference to crop growth.
Abdi Dalel, Cade-Menun Barbara J., Ziadi Noura, Parent Léon-Étienne (2014): Long-Term Impact of Tillage Practices and Phosphorus Fertilization on Soil Phosphorus Forms as Determined by P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Journal of Environment Quality, 43, 1431- https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2013.10.0424
Cade-Menun Barbara J. (2015): Improved peak identification in 31P-NMR spectra of environmental samples with a standardized method and peak library. Geoderma, 257-258, 102-114 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.12.016
Cade-Menun Barbara J., Carter Martin R., James Dean C., Liu Corey W. (2010): Phosphorus Forms and Chemistry in the Soil Profile under Long-Term Conservation Tillage: A Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study. Journal of Environment Quality, 39, 1647- https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2009.0491
Cade-Menun Barbara J., He Zhongqi, Zhang Hailin, Endale Dinku M., Schomberg Harry H., Liu Corey W. (2015): Stratification of Phosphorus Forms from Long-Term Conservation Tillage and Poultry Litter Application. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 79, 504- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2014.08.0310
Celi L., Presta M., Ajmore-Marsan F., Barberis E. (2001): Effects of pH and Electrolytes on Inositol Hexaphosphate Interaction with Goethite. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 753- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.653753x
Doolette A.L., Smernik R.J., Dougherty W.J. (2009): Spiking Improved Solution Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Identification of Soil Phosphorus Compounds. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 73, 919- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2008.0192
FAO (1998): World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Finzi A.C., Canham C.D., Van Breemen N. (1998): Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: Species effects on pH and cations. Ecological Applications, 8: 447–454.
Jacobsen J.S., Westerman R.L. (2008): Stratification of soil acidity derived from nitrogen fertilizaton in winter wheat tillage systems. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 22, 1335-1346 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629109368495
LIANG Ai-Zhen, ZHANG Xiao-Ping, FANG Hua-Jun, YANG Xue-Ming, Drury C.F. (2007): Short-term Effects of Tillage Practices on Organic Carbon in Clay Loam Soil of Northeast China. Pedosphere, 17, 619-623 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(07)60073-3
McDowell R. W., Stewart I., Cade-Menun B. J. (2006): An Examination of Spin–Lattice Relaxation Times for Analysis of Soil and Manure Extracts by Liquid State Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Journal of Environment Quality, 35, 293- https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0285
Murphy P. N. C., Bell A., Turner B. L. (2009): Phosphorus speciation in temperate basaltic grassland soils by solution 31
P NMR spectroscopy. European Journal of Soil Science, 60, 638-651 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01148.x
Ohno Tsutomu, Hiradate Syuntaro, He Zhongqi (2011): Phosphorus Solubility of Agricultural Soils: A Surface Charge and Phosphorus-31 NMR Speciation Study. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75, 1704- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2010.0404
Schoumans O.F. (2000): Determination of the degree of phosphate satu-
ration in non-calcareous soils. In: Pierzynski G.M. (ed.): Methods of Phosphorus Analysis for Soils, Sedmients, Residuals, and Waters. Manhattan, Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 396, 31–34.
Sun Ruibo, Zhang Xue-Xian, Guo Xisheng, Wang Daozhong, Chu Haiyan (2015): Bacterial diversity in soils subjected to long-term chemical fertilization can be more stably maintained with the addition of livestock manure than wheat straw. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 88, 9-18 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.05.007
Turner B.L., Mahieu N., Condron L.M. (2003a): Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral assignments of phosphorus compounds in soil NaOH-EDTA extracts. Soil Science of Society of America Journal, 67: 497–510.
Turner B.L., Mahieu N., Condron L.M. (2003b): The phosphorus composition of temperate pasture soils determined by NaOH-EDTA extraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. Organic Geochemistry, 34: 1199–1210.
Vu D. T., Tang C., Armstrong R. D. (2009): Tillage system affects phosphorus form and depth distribution in three contrasting Victorian soils. Soil Research, 47, 33- https://doi.org/10.1071/SR08108
Wei Kai, Chen Zhenhua, Zhu Anning, Zhang Jiabao, Chen Lijun (2014): Application of 31P NMR spectroscopy in determining phosphatase activities and P composition in soil aggregates influenced by tillage and residue management practices. Soil and Tillage Research, 138, 35-43 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2014.01.001
Wei Kai, Sun Tao, Tian Jihui, Chen Zhenhua, Chen Lijun (2018): Soil microbial biomass, phosphatase and their relationships with phosphorus turnover under mixed inorganic and organic nitrogen addition in a Larix gmelinii plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 422, 313-322 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.04.035