For the purposes of assessment of long-term changes, two sets of Chernozems soil samples were analysed and compared in parallel: ‘old’ file samples obtained during the Soil Survey 1960–1970 in the former Czechoslovakia and a ‘present’ (2013) set of samples from exactly the same sites as the archive samples. The recently collected samples revealed worse qualitative parameters (lower humic acid to fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratios and higher colour quotient Q4/6 values) than the file samples, for all the localities. On the other side, the quantitative soil organic matter (SOM) parameters (oxidizable carbon (Cox) and all its determined components) showed contrary results. The amount of total SOM at the same sites is higher now than it was about 50 years ago. It can be concluded that the current decline in SOM quality in Chernozems is partly compensated for by higher accumulation of SOM in the soils. All the analysed Chernozem samples were found to have much worse qualitative SOM parameters than the values mentioned for this soil type in the older literature. However, a comparison of the current data and the file data of Chernozem SOM quality can still be considered an open issue and require more complex research.
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