The effect of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure on winter wheat grain yield and grain quality
This study evaluated how organic manures and mineral fertilizers affect winter wheat grain and straw yields and grain quality properties. The analysed period of the long-term fertilizer experiment was established in Čáslav, Czech Republic, in 1955 and covers the seasons 2011–2014. The fertilizer treatments were: control; farmyard manure (FYM); FYM + P; FYM + K; FYM + PK; FYM + N1; FYM + N2; FYM + N1PK; FYM + N2PK and FYM + N3PK. The highest grain yields were recorded in the FYM + P and FYM + N3PK treatments (8.9 t/ha). The highest straw yields were recorded in the FYM + N3PK treatment (6.52 t/ha). The lowest yields were provided in the unfertilized control and FYM treatments. Qualitative parameters were evaluated in the control, FYM and FYM + N3PK treatments between the years 2011 and 2013. The best quality of wheat grain was provided by the FYM + N3PK treatment. Combination of the farmyard manure with NPK is the best way to achieve high grain yields with good quality and leads to sustainable food production.
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