Toxic elements and energy accumulation in topsoil and plants of spruce ecosystems
Margita Kuklová, Helena Hniličková, František Hnilička, Ivica Pivková, Ján Kuklahttps://doi.org/10.17221/364/2017-PSECitation:Kuklová M., Hniličková H., Hnilička F., Pivková I., Kukla J. (2017): Toxic elements and energy accumulation in topsoil and plants of spruce ecosystems. Plant Soil Environ., 63: 402-408.
The objective of this research was to evaluate trends and relationships of energy and toxic elements accumulation in A-horizon (the depth of 0–5 cm) of soils and in selected plants of the hemioligotrophic (Dystric Cambisols) and oligotrophic (Skeletic-Rustic Podzols) spruce ecosystems situated along transect (750–1110 m a.s.l.) in the NP Slovenský raj (Eastern Slovakia). The results showed that EU limit values of risk elements in agricultural soils were exceeded for Cu and Cd at the altitude of 750–760 m a.s.l., and in case of Cd also above 1000 m a.s.l. Relationship between energy and toxic elements in soils revealed that with an increasing amount of energy, contents of Zn and Cu significantly declined with altitude (r > –0.5 or r > –0.9). The background value of Cu was exceeded in all plants, that of Zn for Dryopteris filix-mas and Rubus idaeus. Furthermore, excessive accumulation of Cd was revealed by all plants. Cu contents in soils were dominant in determining Cu uptake for Vaccinium myrtillus (r > 0.5); Zn and Cd for V. myrtillus (r > 0.6), D. filix-mas (r > 0.5 or r > 0.8) and Fagus sylvatica (r > –0.8 or r > –0.5); Zn also for R. idaeus species (r > 0.4). The soil-plant transfer coefficients higher than 1 hinted R. idaeus on the plots at the altitude of 960 m a.s.l. (Cd 1.1, Cu 1.2, Zn 3.1), which appears as an excellent native indicator of forest ecosystem contamination.Keywords:
forest stands; phytomass; toxicity; microelement; calorific valueReferences:
Baruch Zdravko (1982): Patterns of energy content in plants from the venezuelan paramos. Oecologia, 55, 47-52 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00386717Belanovic S., Bjedov I., Čakmak D., Obratov-Petković D., Kadović R., Beloica J. (2013): Influence of Zn on the availability of Cd and Cu to Vaccinium species in unpolluted areas – A case study of Stara Planina Mt. (Serbia). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8: 5–14.Bowen H.J.M. (1979): Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. London, Adacemic Press.Broadley Martin R., White Philip J., Hammond John P., Zelko Ivan, Lux Alexander (2007): Zinc in plants. New Phytologist, 173, 677-702 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.01996.xBurvall Jan (1997): Influence of harvest time and soil type on fuel quality in reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). Biomass and Bioenergy, 12, 149-154 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(96)00064-5Dmuchowski Wojciech, Bytnerowicz Andrzej (1995): Monitoring environmental pollution in Poland by chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. Environmental Pollution, 87, 87-104 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)80012-8Hänsch Robert, Mendel Ralf R (2009): Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl). Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 259-266 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2009.05.006Hniličková H., Kuklová M., Hnilička F., Kukla J. (2016): Effect of altitude and age of stands on physiological response of three dominant plants in forests of the Western Carpathians . Plant, Soil and Environment, 62, 341-347 https://doi.org/10.17221/116/2016-PSEHnilička F., Hniličková H., Hejnák V. (2015): Use of combustion methods for calorimetry in the applied physiology of plants. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 120, 411-417 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-014-3716-4Hrdlicka P., Kula E. (1998): Element content in leaves of birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) in an air polluted area. Trees, 13, 68-73 https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00009740Kabata-Pendias A. (2011): Trace Elements in Soils and Plants.4th Edition. Boca Raton, Taylor and Francis Group.Kloke A., Sauerbeck D.R., Vetter H. (1984): The contamination of plants and soils with heavy metals and the transport of metals in terrestrial food chains. In: Nriagu J.O. (ed.): Changing Metal Cycles and Human Health: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Changing Metal Cycles and Human Health, Berlin, Springer, 113–141.Kuklová Margita, Kukla Ján, Gašová Katarína (2016): Chromium and Nickel Accumulation by Plants Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Western Carpathian Secondary Spruce Stands. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25, 1563-1572 https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/62098Kuklová M., Kukla J., Hnilička F. (2010): The soil-to-herbs transfer of heavy metal in spruce ecosystems. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19: 1263–1268.Macnicol R. D., Beckett P. H. T. (1985): Critical tissue concentrations of potentially toxic elements. Plant and Soil, 85, 107-129 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02197805Markert B. (1995): Instrumental Multielement Analysis in Plant Materials – A Modern Method in Environmental Chemistry and Tropical Systems Research. Rio de Janeiro, CETEM/CNPq.Marschner H. (1995): Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants.2nd Edition. London, Academic Press.Merino Agustín, Real Carlos, Rodríguez-Guitián Manuel A. (2008): Nutrient status of managed and natural forest fragments of Fagus sylvatica in southern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 3691-3699 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.03.007Act No. 220/2004 Coll. (2004): On the Protection and Agricultural Land Use. Annex 2 under Part 96. Bratislava, National Council of Slovak Republic. (In Slovak)Mousavi S.R. (2011): Zinc in crop production and interaction with phosphorus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5: 1503–1509.Parzych A., Jonczak J. (2014): Pine needles (Pinus sylvestris L.) as bioindicators in the assessment of urban environmental contamination with heavy metals. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 15: 29–38.Reddy K. J., Wang L., Gloss S. P. (1995): Solubility and mobility of copper, zinc and lead in acidic environments. Plant and Soil, 171, 53-58 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00009564Skorbiłowicz Elżbieta (2015): ZINC AND LEAD IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN RIVER NAREW. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 16, 127-134 https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/597Zeng Xiangfeng, Yu Xiaomam, Wang Zuwei, Lynn Alexandra, Cai Jianchao, Huangfu Yanchong, Geng Yong, Tang Jiaxi (2016): Heavy Metals in Wheat Grown in Sewage Irrigation: A Distribution and Prediction Model. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25, 413-418 https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/60351Zeidler M. (2005): Heavy metals in two herbs species (River Morava, Czech Republic). Polish Journal of Ecology, 53: 185–195.Zhong Mengying, Wang Jianxun, Liu Kesi, Wu Ruixin, Liu Yuehua, Wei Xiaoting, Pan Duo, Shao Xinqing (2014): Leaf Morphology Shift of Three Dominant Species along Altitudinal Gradient in an Alpine Meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Polish Journal of Ecology, 62, 639-648 https://doi.org/10.3161/104.062.0409