Effect of adjuvants on the dissipation, efficacy and selectivity of three different pre-emergent sunflower herbicides
The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy, selectivity to sunflower and dissipation of three pre-emergent herbicides. Flurochloridone, linuron and oxyfluorfen were applied individually and each herbicide was also applied in a tank mix with two different adjuvants (a silicon-based adjuvant and paraffin oil). Small-plot field trials were carried out with sunflower in Central Bohemia in 2012 and 2015. Around 25–35% of the active ingredients in the applied herbicides were detected in soil 60 days after application in both years, except for oxyfluorfen in 2012, whose residual concentration was 60%. The tested soil adjuvants did not affect the dissipation of any of the tested herbicide in soil in either experimental year. Oxyfluorfen exhibited the highest mobility and caused the greatest degree of sunflower injury (18%), especially in the year with high rainfall shortly after application. None of the tested adjuvants significantly affected sunflower injury by any tested herbicide. The efficacy of flurochloridone and linuron on Fallopia convolvulus was strongly affected by weather conditions shortly after application. The efficacy of oxyfluorfen was around 85% and was not affected by weather conditions. The effect of adjuvant on herbicide efficacy was positive only in dry conditions, where the efficacy of flurochloridone on F. convolvulus was positively affected by the silicon-based adjuvant.
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